Research ArticleATMOSPHERIC SCIENCE

Urban heat island: Aerodynamics or imperviousness?

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Science Advances  03 Apr 2019:
Vol. 5, no. 4, eaau4299
DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.aau4299
  • Fig. 1 Distribution and attribution of summer daytime surface UHIs across North America.

    (A) Distribution of simulated surface UHIs across 60 cities using the Sheffield forcing in 1981–2000: continental region (16 cities; blue), arid region (10 cities; yellow), and temperate region (34 cities; green). (B) Attribution of surface UHIs in current and future climates to different biophysical factors using the TRM method. Rn*, ra, rs, and G represent contributions from net radiation, aerodynamic resistance, surface resistance, and heat storage, respectively. “Total” represents the sum of four contributions.

  • Fig. 2 Relationship between precipitation and modeled daytime ΔT among cities.

    The top panels show annual mean results. The bottom panels show summer mean results. (A and D) The correlation between daytime ΔT and precipitation in 1981–2000. Dash lines are linear regression fits to ΔT from the climate model (black), ΔT from the IBM method (blue), and ΔT from the TRM method (red). Parameter bounds for the regression slope are the 95% confidence interval. (B, C, E, and F) ΔT-precipitation covariance explained by contributions from net radiation (Rn*), aerodynamic resistance (ra), the Bowen ratio (β for the IBM method) or surface resistance (rs for the TRM method), and heat storage G.

Supplementary Materials

  • Supplementary material for this article is available at http://advances.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/full/5/4/eaau4299/DC1

    Supplementary Text

    Fig. S1. Distribution and attribution of summer daytime surface UHIs across North America.

    Fig. S2. Distribution and attribution of summer nighttime surface UHIs across North America.

    Fig. S3. Relationship between precipitation and daytime ΔT among 60 cities in winter.

    Fig. S4. Relationship between precipitation and daytime ΔT among cities in summer.

    Table S1. The selected cities in North America and the effective urban and rural albedo values for each city.

    Table S2. The root mean square errors between ΔT from the climate model and those computed using the TRM method.

    Reference (32)

  • Supplementary Materials

    This PDF file includes:

    • Supplementary Text
    • Fig. S1. Distribution and attribution of summer daytime surface UHIs across North America.
    • Fig. S2. Distribution and attribution of summer nighttime surface UHIs across North America.
    • Fig. S3. Relationship between precipitation and daytime ΔT among 60 cities in winter.
    • Fig. S4. Relationship between precipitation and daytime ΔT among cities in summer.
    • Table S1. The selected cities in North America and the effective urban and rural albedo values for each city.
    • Table S2. The root mean square errors between ΔT from the climate model and those computed using the TRM method.
    • Reference (32)

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