Research ArticleMATERIALS SCIENCE

Homogeneous guiding deposition of sodium through main group II metals toward dendrite-free sodium anodes

See allHide authors and affiliations

Science Advances  12 Apr 2019:
Vol. 5, no. 4, eaau6264
DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.aau6264
  • Fig. 1 Nucleation behaviors of sodium metal on selective metal foils.

    (A) Schematic illustration of sodium deposition on main group II metal foils, demonstrating the uniform nucleation and growth of sodium. (B) Detailed nucleation curves of sodium deposition on different metal foils at 50 μA cm−2. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of nucleated Na on metal foils including (C) Be, (D) Mg, (E) Ba, (F) Cu, and (G) Al after depositing 0.1 mA∙hour cm−2 of Na. SEM images of deposited Na on (H) Be, (I) Mg, (J) Ba, (K) Cu, and (L) Al foils after depositing 0.75 mA∙hour cm−2 of Na. (M) Phase diagram of Na with Mg. Mg exhibits solubility in Na, as demonstrated in the bottom right corner.

  • Fig. 2 Controllable nucleation and growth of sodium in the 3DHS.

    (A) Schematic of Na deposition in the 3DHS film with Mg clusters, demonstrating the controllable nucleation and growth of sodium. Detailed nucleation curves of sodium deposition on the 3DHS film (B) with and (C) without Mg clusters at 50 μA cm−2, showing a very low overpotential of 6.6 mV for the 3DHS with Mg clusters. Side view SEM images for the deposited Na of the 3DHS (D) with and (E) without Mg clusters. (F) Galvanostatic cycling stabilities of Na (black) and 3DHS after sodium deposition (orange) electrodes in symmetric cells at 0.5 mA cm−2. Inset: Voltage profile at the 50th cycle.

  • Fig. 3 Fast infusion of molten sodium into the 3DHS and production of Na-3DHS.

    (A) Time-lapse images of molten Na infusion into the 3DHS film. (B) Optical pictures of flexible Na-3DHS. (C) Side and (D) top views SEM images of Na-3DHS, indicating the uniform infusion of sodium into the 3DHS film. (E) XRD patterns, (F) nitrogen sorption isotherms, and pore diameter distributions of the 3DHS film before and after Na infusion. a.u., arbitrary units; STP, standard temperature and pressure. Photo credit: Mengqi Zhu, Beihang University.

  • Fig. 4 Electrochemical properties of the Na-3DHS.

    Galvanostatic cycling stabilities of Na-3DHS (orange) and Na (black) electrodes in symmetric cells at (A) 0.5 and (B) 1 mA cm−2 for 1 mA∙hour cm−2. (C) Stripping/plating curves of Na-3DHS and Na electrodes at the selected 10th cycle at 0.5 mA cm−2. (D) Stripping/plating curve of the Na-3DHS at the 100th cycle at 0.5 mA cm−2. Impedance spectra of (E) Na-3DHS anode after 2 and 100 cycles and of (F) bare Na anode after 2 and 10 cycles.

Supplementary Materials

  • Supplementary material for this article is available at http://advances.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/full/5/4/eaau6264/DC1

    Supplementary Materials and Methods

    Fig. S1. Phase diagrams of selected materials.

    Fig. S2. Nucleation behaviors of sodium metal on selective metal foils.

    Fig. S3. The nucleation curve of Na deposition on Sr and the phase diagram of Sr with Na.

    Fig. S4. Morphologies of carbon fiber cloth (CFC)/Ba and CFC/Ba-Na.

    Fig. S5. Galvanostatic cycling stability of CFC/Ba-Na.

    Fig. S6. XRD patterns of prepared Mg-MOF-74.

    Fig. S7. EDX mappings of cMOF74.

    Fig. S8. Morphologies of the 3DHS.

    Fig. S9. Morphologies of the 3DHS with and without Mg clusters after Na deposition.

    Fig. S10. Galvanostatic cycling stability of the symmetric cell using the 3DHS without Mg clusters after Na deposition.

    Fig. S11. EDX mappings of Na-3DHS.

    Fig. S12. Characterizations of the 3DHS without Mg clusters.

    Fig. S13. The influence of Na content on the cycling stability of the Na-3DHS electrode.

    Fig. S14. Galvanostatic cycling stability of Na-ZIF8.

    Fig. S15. Morphologies of Na-3DHS.

    Fig. S16. Morphology characterizations of Na-3DHS electrode during one stripping/plating process.

    Fig. S17. SEM images of Na-3DHS electrode after 100 cycles.

    Fig. S18. Cycling stability of the cMOF74 cathode.

    Fig. S19. Electrochemical performances of full cells with Na3V2(PO4)3 cathodes.

    Fig. S20. Cycling stability of the full cell with the FeS2 cathode.

    Table S1. Electrical conductivities of commonly used carbon materials.

    Movie S1. Infusion process of molten sodium.

  • Supplementary Materials

    The PDF file includes:

    • Supplementary Materials and Methods
    • Fig. S1. Phase diagrams of selected materials.
    • Fig. S2. Nucleation behaviors of sodium metal on selective metal foils.
    • Fig. S3. The nucleation curve of Na deposition on Sr and the phase diagram of Sr with Na.
    • Fig. S4. Morphologies of carbon fiber cloth (CFC)/Ba and CFC/Ba-Na.
    • Fig. S5. Galvanostatic cycling stability of CFC/Ba-Na.
    • Fig. S6. XRD patterns of prepared Mg-MOF-74.
    • Fig. S7. EDX mappings of cMOF74.
    • Fig. S8. Morphologies of the 3DHS.
    • Fig. S9. Morphologies of the 3DHS with and without Mg clusters after Na deposition.
    • Fig. S10. Galvanostatic cycling stability of the symmetric cell using the 3DHS without Mg clusters after Na deposition.
    • Fig. S11. EDX mappings of Na-3DHS.
    • Fig. S12. Characterizations of the 3DHS without Mg clusters.
    • Fig. S13. The influence of Na content on the cycling stability of the Na-3DHS electrode.
    • Fig. S14. Galvanostatic cycling stability of Na-ZIF8.
    • Fig. S15. Morphologies of Na-3DHS.
    • Fig. S16. Morphology characterizations of Na-3DHS electrode during one stripping/plating process.
    • Fig. S17. SEM images of Na-3DHS electrode after 100 cycles.
    • Fig. S18. Cycling stability of the cMOF74 cathode.
    • Fig. S19. Electrochemical performances of full cells with Na3V2(PO4)3 cathodes.
    • Fig. S20. Cycling stability of the full cell with the FeS2 cathode.
    • Table S1. Electrical conductivities of commonly used carbon materials.
    • Legends for movie S1

    Download PDF

    Other Supplementary Material for this manuscript includes the following:

    • Movie S1 (.mp4 format). Infusion process of molten sodium.

    Files in this Data Supplement:

Stay Connected to Science Advances

Navigate This Article