Research ArticleMATERIALS SCIENCE

A constant current triboelectric nanogenerator arising from electrostatic breakdown

See allHide authors and affiliations

Science Advances  05 Apr 2019:
Vol. 5, no. 4, eaav6437
DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.aav6437
  • Fig. 1 Working principle of the DC-TENG.

    (A) (i) Phenomenon of the triboelectrification effect and electrostatic breakdown (lightning) in nature. (ii) Working mechanism of a conventional TENG. (B) A schematic illustration of the sliding mode DC-TENG. (C) Working mechanism of the sliding mode DC-TENG in full cyclic motion. (D) Equivalent circuit model of the DC-TENG. (E) Constant current output of the DC-TENG.

  • Fig. 2 Output performance of the sliding mode DC-TENG.

    (A) Photographs of the stator and the slider (inset) of the sliding mode DC-TENG (W is the width of the FE and L is the length of CCE; scale bar, 3 cm). (B) Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) image of nanowires on the surface of PTFE. Scale bar, 1 μm. A larger surface curvature results in an ultrahigh electric field, which is easier to air breakdown. (C) Phenomenon of air discharge in this paper. Scale bar, 1 cm. (D) Short-circuit current, (E) transferred charges, and (F) open-circuit voltage of the sliding mode DC-TENG. (G) Short-circuit current, (H) transferred charges, and (I) open-circuit voltage of the sliding mode DC-TENG at different accelerations. (J) Short-circuit current and (K) open-circuit voltage of the sliding mode DC-TENG at different velocities.

  • Fig. 3 Working mechanism and output performance of the rotary mode DC-TENG.

    (A) Structural design of the rotary mode DC-TENG. Inset shows a zoomed-in illustration of its stator. (B) Working mechanism of the rotary mode DC-TENG. (C) Photographs of the fabricated rotary mode DC-TENG. Scale bar, 5 cm. (D) Short-circuit current, (E) transferred charges, and (F) open-circuit voltage of the rotary mode DC-TENG at different rotation rates (300, 400, 500, and 600 r min−1). (G) Output current of the rotary mode DC-TENG with various resistances. Inset shows the detailed output current at 1 kilohm and 40 megohms. (H) Output voltage and (I) power of the rotary mode DC-TENG with various resistances.

  • Fig. 4 Application of the DC-TENG to drive electronic devices.

    (A) System diagram and (B) circuit diagram of a DC-TENG–based self-powered system to power electronics directly. (C) Measured voltage of a capacitor (470 μF) charged by a rotary mode DC-TENG at different rotation rates. (D) Charging curves of capacitors with various capacitance charged by a rotary mode DC-TENG at a rotating speed of 500 r min−1. (E) Photograph of a watch directly driven by a sliding mode DC-TENG. (F) Photograph of a scientific calculator directly driven by a rotary mode DC-TENG. (G) Photograph of 81 LEDs with stable luminance powered by a rotary mode DC-TENG. (H) System diagram and (I) circuit diagram of the self-powered system to power electronics with energy storage units. (J) Charging curves of the capacitor when the watch is driven by a rotary mode DC-TENG simultaneously. (K) Charging curves of the capacitor when the scientific calculator is driven by a rotary mode DC-TENG simultaneously. Scale bars, 5 cm. Photo credit for (E), (F), (G), (J), and (K): X. Yin, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

Supplementary Materials

  • Supplementary material for this article is available at http://advances.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/full/5/4/eaav6437/DC1

    Supplementary Materials and Methods

    Fig. S1. Working principle of the sliding mode DC-TENG during the first cycle.

    Fig. S2. Working mechanism of a conventional sliding TENG.

    Fig. S3. Equivalent circuit model of a conventional TENG.

    Fig. S4. Surface potential of the PTFE film under different conditions.

    Fig. S5. Transferred charges of the sliding mode DC-TENG at different velocities.

    Fig. S6. Output performance of the sliding mode DC-TENG where the triboelectric materials are PTFE and nitrile.

    Fig. S7. Charge density of the sliding mode DC-TENG with nanostructured PTFE.

    Fig. S8. Short-circuit current of the sliding mode DC-TENG at different gap.

    Fig. S9. Working mechanism of the sliding mode DC-TENG with two CCEs at the two ends of the slider.

    Fig. S10. Output performance of the sliding mode DC-TENG with two electrodes at the two ends of the slider.

    Fig. S11. Output performance of the DC-TENG with different FE widths.

    Fig. S12. Output performance of the DC-TENG in parallel.

    Fig. S13. Output performance of the DC-TENG with different CCE lengths.

    Fig. S14. Long-term output current of the sliding mode DC-TENG.

    Fig. S15. Average charge at different rotation rates when the rotary motor rotates stably.

    Table S1. Charge density of a conventional sliding TENG and our sliding DC-TENG.

    Table S2. Crest factor of the rotary mode DC-TENG at different rotation rates.

    Table S3. Average charge and the average value of steady current at different rotation rates.

    Note S1. Working principle of the sliding mode DC-TENG during the first cycle.

    Note S2. Working mechanism and equivalent circuit model of a conventional sliding TENG.

    Note S3. Short-circuit current of the DC-TENG at different gap.

    Note S4. Output performance of the sliding mode DC-TENG with two CCEs at the two ends of the slider.

    Note S5. Short-circuit current of the DC-TENG with different FE widths.

    Note S6. Calculation of the crest factor and average current.

    Note S7. Calculation of the equivalent input current of an electronic watch.

    Movie S1. An electronic watch is powered directly by the sliding mode DC-TENG.

    Movie S2. An electronic calculator is powered by the rotary mode DC-TENG.

    Movie S3. LEDs are powered by the rotary mode DC-TENG.

    References (3739)

  • Supplementary Materials

    The PDF file includes:

    • Supplementary Materials and Methods
    • Fig. S1. Working principle of the sliding mode DC-TENG during the first cycle.
    • Fig. S2. Working mechanism of a conventional sliding TENG.
    • Fig. S3. Equivalent circuit model of a conventional TENG.
    • Fig. S4. Surface potential of the PTFE film under different conditions.
    • Fig. S5. Transferred charges of the sliding mode DC-TENG at different velocities.
    • Fig. S6. Output performance of the sliding mode DC-TENG where the triboelectric materials are PTFE and nitrile.
    • Fig. S7. Charge density of the sliding mode DC-TENG with nanostructured PTFE.
    • Fig. S8. Short-circuit current of the sliding mode DC-TENG at different gap.
    • Fig. S9. Working mechanism of the sliding mode DC-TENG with two CCEs at the two ends of the slider.
    • Fig. S10. Output performance of the sliding mode DC-TENG with two electrodes at the two ends of the slider.
    • Fig. S11. Output performance of the DC-TENG with different FE widths.
    • Fig. S12. Output performance of the DC-TENG in parallel.
    • Fig. S13. Output performance of the DC-TENG with different CCE lengths.
    • Fig. S14. Long-term output current of the sliding mode DC-TENG.
    • Fig. S15. Average charge at different rotation rates when the rotary motor rotates stably.
    • Table S1. Charge density of a conventional sliding TENG and our sliding DC-TENG.
    • Table S2. Crest factor of the rotary mode DC-TENG at different rotation rates.
    • Table S3. Average charge and the average value of steady current at different rotation rates.
    • Note S1. Working principle of the sliding mode DC-TENG during the first cycle.
    • Note S2. Working mechanism and equivalent circuit model of a conventional sliding TENG.
    • Note S3. Short-circuit current of the DC-TENG at different gap.
    • Note S4. Output performance of the sliding mode DC-TENG with two CCEs at the two ends of the slider.
    • Note S5. Short-circuit current of the DC-TENG with different FE widths.
    • Note S6. Calculation of the crest factor and average current.
    • Note S7. Calculation of the equivalent input current of an electronic watch.
    • Legends for movies S1 to S3
    • References (3739)

    Download PDF

    Other Supplementary Material for this manuscript includes the following:

    • Movie S1 (.mp4 format). An electronic watch is powered directly by the sliding mode DC-TENG.
    • Movie S2 (.mp4 format). An electronic calculator is powered by the rotary mode DC-TENG.
    • Movie S3 (.mp4 format). LEDs are powered by the rotary mode DC-TENG.

    Files in this Data Supplement:

Stay Connected to Science Advances

Navigate This Article