Research ArticleMATERIALS SCIENCE

Fully soluble self-doped poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) with an electrical conductivity greater than 1000 S cm−1

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Science Advances  12 Apr 2019:
Vol. 5, no. 4, eaav9492
DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.aav9492
  • Fig. 1 Synthesis of S-PEDOT by oxidative polymerization of the S-EDOT monomer.

  • Fig. 2 Solution properties of S-PEDOT.

    (A) GPC elution curves, weight average molecular weight (Mw), number average molecular weight (Mn), and PDI of S-PEDOT synthesized with different CS-EDOT. (B) Viscosity and pH dependencies of the S-PEDOT water solutions (1 wt %) on CS-EDOT. (C) UV-vis-NIR spectra of the S-PEDOT water solutions (0.01 wt %) synthesized with different CS-EDOT.

  • Fig. 3 Crystalline structure of S-PEDOT.

    (A) X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns of S-PEDOT films with different CS-EDOT and a possible crystalline structure of S-PEDOT (inset). (B) Crystallinity (Xc) and crystallite size (D100 and D020) dependencies of S-PEDOT films on CS-EDOT. a.u., arbitrary units.

  • Fig. 4 AFM height images of S-PEDOT.

    (A) Surface morphologies of S-PEDOT thin films with different CS-EDOT. (B) Average particle size (Dp), number of particles (Np), and surface roughness (Ra) dependencies of S-PEDOT thin films on CS-EDOT.

  • Fig. 5 cAFM images of S-PEDOT.

    (A) Current mapping images of S-PEDOT thin films with different CS-EDOT. (B) Average nanocrystal size (Dnc), number of nanocrystals (Nnc), and average length between adjacent nanocrystals (Lnc) dependencies of S-PEDOT thin films on CS-EDOT.

  • Fig. 6 Electrical conductivity and carrier transport properties of S-PEDOT.

    (A) Electrical conductivity dependency of S-PEDOT films measured by the four-point method on CS-EDOT. (B) Electrical conductivity and activation energy (Ea) dependencies of S-PEDOT films on Lnc. (C) Lnc, electrical conductivities at 77 K (σ77K) and 293 K (σ293K), and Ea of S-PEDOT films with different CS-EDOT. The vertical and horizontal axes of (B) (top) correspond to the vertical axis of (A) and the horizontal axis of (B) (bottom), respectively.

  • Fig. 7 Correlation between the hierarchical structure and properties of S-PEDOT.

    (A) Chemical structures of the S-EDOT monomer (primary structure) and S-PEDOT (secondary structure), the S-PEDOT nanocrystal (tertiary structure), and the distribution of S-PEDOT nanocrystals (quaternary structure). (B) Relation between CS-EDOT and Mw. (C) Dependencies of Xc and Nnc on Mw. (D) Dependencies of Lnc and Ea on Nnc. (E) Relation between Lnc and electrical conductivity.

Supplementary Materials

  • Supplementary material for this article is available at http://advances.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/full/5/4/eaav9492/DC1

    Table S1. Oral median lethal dose (LD50) of various sultones in rats.

    Table S2. Dispersibility of PEDOT:PSS and solubility of S-PEDOT in various solvents.

    Fig. S1. Chemical structure of S-EDOT isomers.

    Fig. S2. Flow-through test.

    Fig. S3. Optical properties of thin films.

    Fig. S4. Possible structure of the S-PEDOT nanocrystal.

    Fig. S5. Synthetic route of the S-EDOT monomer.

    Fig. S6. Characterization of the S-EDOT monomer.

    Fig. S7. TG-DTA curves of the S-PEDOT film.

  • Supplementary Materials

    This PDF file includes:

    • Table S1. Oral median lethal dose (LD50) of various sultones in rats.
    • Table S2. Dispersibility of PEDOT:PSS and solubility of S-PEDOT in various solvents.
    • Fig. S1. Chemical structure of S-EDOT isomers.
    • Fig. S2. Flow-through test.
    • Fig. S3. Optical properties of thin films.
    • Fig. S4. Possible structure of the S-PEDOT nanocrystal.
    • Fig. S5. Synthetic route of the S-EDOT monomer.
    • Fig. S6. Characterization of the S-EDOT monomer.
    • Fig. S7. TG-DTA curves of the S-PEDOT film.

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