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A Global Deal For Nature: Guiding principles, milestones, and targets

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Science Advances  19 Apr 2019:
Vol. 5, no. 4, eaaw2869
DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.aaw2869
  • Fig. 1 The world’s 846 terrestrial ecoregions and depiction of 30% protection by the 2030 milestone.

    (A) The 846 terrestrial ecoregions. (B) Levels of protection by 2030.

  • Fig. 2 Increasing representation of important terrestrial, freshwater, and marine biodiversity sites for global 2030 targets.

    (A) Terrestrial and freshwater biodiversity sites. (B) Marine biodiversity sites. RR, IUCN Sites of Range Rarity; TS, Threatened Species Sites.

  • Fig. 3 Coastal ecoregions, pelagic provinces, and marine protected areas of the world oceans.

    (A) Coastal ecoregions and pelagic provinces. (B) Map of marine protected areas.

  • Table 1 Increased representation by biome of ecoregions achieving 30% protection by 2030.

    GDN categoryThrough increased
    protection only
    Through increased
    protection and
    restoration
    Biome nameNo. of
    ecoregions
    (1) Milestone
    Reached
    (2) High
    Potential
    (3) Moderate
    Potential
    (4) Nature
    Imperiled
    Ecoregions
    that can
    reach 30 ×
    30 (#)
    Ecoregions
    that can
    reach 30 ×
    30 (%)
    Ecoregions
    that can
    reach 30 ×
    30 (#)
    Ecoregions
    that can
    reach 30 ×
    30 (%)
    Boreal Forests/Taiga263182321812388
    Deserts and Xeric
    Shrublands
    101175162768677473
    Flooded Grasslands
    and Savannas
    251434417682184
    Mangroves20961415751680
    Mediterranean Forests,
    Woodlands, and Scrub
    40101210822553280
    Montane Grasslands
    and Shrublands
    46221121133723576
    Temperate Broadleaf
    and Mixed Forests
    831632112448585971
    Temperate Conifer
    Forests
    4792110730644085
    Temperate Grasslands,
    Savannas, and
    Shrublands
    4802052320422552
    Tropical and Subtropical
    Coniferous Forests
    153110114931493
    Tropical and Subtropical
    Dry Broadleaf Forests
    56615112421383257
    Tropical and Subtropical
    Grasslands, Savannas,
    and Shrublands
    58131981832554069
    Tropical and Subtropical
    Moist Broadleaf
    Forests
    2306710818371757619384
    Tundra5130200150985098
    TOTAL846219347881925666765477
  • Table 2 Combined milestones and measurable targets for a GDN to better protect biodiversity and biosphere function in the terrestrial, freshwater, and marine realms.

    Feature2018 BenchmarkMilestone for 2030Target outcome for 2050References
    Protecting natural habitats and species
    Global percent natural habitat protected
    Global surface protected area
    coverage for Terrestrial,
    Freshwater, and
    Marine Realms
    Under Aichi Biodiversity
    Target 11 currently:
    (i) 14.9% of the world’s
    terrestrial and inland
    waters, and
    (ii) Approximately 4% of the
    global ocean is covered by
    implemented MPAs but only
    2% in fully protected areas
    30% in protected areas:
    (i) 30% of terrestrial surface
    (incorporates freshwater),
    strategically located to better
    protect biodiversity and
    biosphere function
    (ii) at least 30% of each ocean
    habitat in fully to highly
    protected MPAs
    (iii) an additional 20% surface
    area designated as CSAs
    50% in protected areas
    composed of:
    (i) 50% of terrestrial surface
    (incorporates freshwater),
    strategically located to better
    protect biodiversity and
    biosphere function
    (ii) networks of fully to highly
    protected MPAs cover at least
    30% of exclusive economic
    zones and 80% of the high seas
    (24, 40, 43)
    Biodiversity representation by ecoregions (terrestrial and freshwater)
    Ecoregion-based
    representation in global
    protected area system
    (i) Less than half of the world’s
    846 terrestrial ecoregions
    have at least 17% of their
    area in protected areas
    (ii) Only one-third of the 232
    marine ecoregions (coastal)
    have at least 10% of their
    area protected
    (i) 300 terrestrial ecoregions have
    reached half protected;
    563 terrestrial ecoregions have
    reached 30% protected
    (ii) All marine ecoregions
    have reached at least
    30% protected
    (i) 650 terrestrial ecoregions half
    protected
    (ii) All marine ecoregions at least
    half protected
    (16)
    Priority natural sites and species within ecoregions
    Alliance for Zero Extinction
    sites
    56% of 600 AZE sites protected100% of 600 sites are effectively
    conserved including
    1-km buffer
    100% of target species have IUCN
    status improved
    (46)
    IUCN range rarity of vertebrate
    species
    Rasterized map of hotspots50% of areas identified on
    map of hotspots of range
    rarity protected
    100% of areas with hotspots of
    threatened and small-ranged
    species protected
    (92)
    Key Biodiversity Areas15,000+ KBAs identified as of
    2018; 60% protected in 2018
    90% of extant and future,
    formally identified KBAs are
    protected, including a 1-km
    buffer around all KBAs
    100% of extant and future,
    formally identified KBAs are
    protected, including a 1-km
    buffer around all KBAs
    (27)
    High Biodiversity Importance
    Ecoregions
    455 HBIEs11.4% new protected areas
    added to reach 30% globally
    Addition of all other megafaunal
    areas overlapping with
    carbon sinks as CSAs
    Fig. S1H
    Specific management actions
    targeting wide-ranging
    megafauna and large
    mammal migration routes
    As examples, range collapse
    and steep declines in
    populations of African
    elephants, most rhinoceros
    species, and many tiger
    populations. Rampant
    poaching in many regions;
    historic migration routes of
    large mammals under threat
    from development
    (i) Populations of 10 target
    species are doubled from 2018
    baseline by 2030
    (ii) Sport and commercial hunting
    of endangered megafauna
    and all trade in live animals
    and parts are banned
    (iii) 10 migration hotspots are
    secured and routes protected
    as globally recognized
    corridors
    (i) Populations of 20 target species
    are doubled
    (ii) Restoration of relatively intact
    megafaunal assemblages in
    40 priority landscapes
    (iii) 20 migration hotspots are
    secured and protected as
    globally recognized corridors
    (iv) Achieving the above three
    targets leads to a delisting of
    these megafaunal species by
    the IUCN Red List
    (28, 49, 71)
    Primary habitatsCombined, old-growth or intact
    habitats across all biomes
    cover less than 23% of the
    Earth’s surface; for some
    biomes, few large examples
    remain
    80% of 2018 extant is placed in
    protected areas or OECMs
    100% of old-growth habitats under
    protected areas or OECMs
    (15)
    Stabilizing and restoring ecosystem function
    CSAs as OECMs with the
    explicit goals of conserving
    the carbon storehouses and
    global forest cover
    (i) Potential CSAs are currently
    intact and
    (ii) 2017 forest cover =
    11.61 m km2
    (i) Designated CSAs are 80%
    intact and 80% conserved
    through OECMs
    (ii) International and national
    protection for all mangrove,
    coastal marshes, wetlands,
    seagrass beds, swamp forest,
    peat forest, peatlands by
    2030 and
    (iii) 80% natural forest cover
    remains intact globally
    (i) Designated CSAs remain intact
    as OECMs
    (ii) Increase in forest cover via
    Bonn Challenge and other
    means by 10%
    (3)
    Indigenous landsIndigenous peoples’ lands
    account for 37% of all
    remaining natural lands on
    Earth and store >293
    gigatons of carbon
    High-priority indigenous lands
    that self-nominate and are
    identified as crucial to
    contributing to 2030 global
    targets are declared as OECMs
    with tenure and management
    financing secure
    All high-priority indigenous lands
    self-nominated as OECMs
    receive designation, tenure
    rights, and support for
    management effectiveness
    (74)
    Maintain and restore
    connectivity of terrestrial
    protected areas
    7.5% terrestrial protected areas
    well connected
    20% terrestrial protected areas
    well connected
    40% protected areas
    well connected
    (37)
    Maintain and restore
    connectivity of
    inland waters
    More than 800,000 dams and
    45,000+ large dams exist;
    more than half of the world’s
    rivers blocked by large dams,
    thousands of smaller dams
    being planned, 35% of
    wetlands have been lost
    since 1970
    (i) No further planning or
    building of large- to
    medium-sized dams on the
    world’s rivers; concentration of
    dams on tributaries with
    existing structures
    (ii) Maintain two-thirds of all
    headwaters of the Earth’s
    major river systems
    undammed by 2030 through
    protection and removal of
    blocking infrastructure
    (iii) Protect and restore riparian
    habitats along one-third of all
    rivers by 2030
    (iv) Adequate protection and
    1-km buffer zones for all
    RAMSAR wetlands by 2030
    (v) Protection of one-third of the
    world’s forested upper
    watersheds by 2030
    (i) Restoration of 25% of the
    world’s rivers to free-flowing
    state by 2050 through removal
    of dams and barrages
    (ii) Protection and restoration of
    riparian habitats along
    two-thirds of all rivers by 2050
    (iii) Adequate protection and 1-km
    buffer zones for all globally
    mapped wetlands by 2050
    (iv) Protection of one-half of the
    world’s forested upper
    watersheds by 2050
    (57, 93)
    Maintain and restore
    connectivity of marine
    waters
    Scant formal protection of
    critical marine habitats
    (reproduction, nurseries) for
    threatened species and
    migratory corridors for
    endangered species of fish,
    marine mammals, and sea
    turtles
    (i) Full protection of all critical
    habitats (reproduction,
    feeding, and nurseries) for
    threatened species
    (ii) Full protection of critical
    migratory corridors within
    local networks of MPAs for
    endangered species of fish,
    marine mammals, and
    sea turtles
    (i) Full protection of all critical
    habitats (reproduction, feeding,
    and nurseries) for commercial
    and threatened species
    (ii) Full protection of critical
    migratory corridors within local
    networks of MPAs for
    commercial and endangered
    species
  • Table 3 Enabling policies, milestones, and targets to reduce major threats and drivers of change.

    Enabling policies to reduce threats and drivers
    Feature2018 BenchmarkMilestone for 2030Target outcome for 2050References
    Agricultural
    expansion
    Cropland covers at least 12% of
    the planet’s ice-free surface;
    the expected range of
    cropland expansion is
    123–495 Mha per annum
    (i) Expansion of agro-commodity
    production and supporting roads and
    settlements is moved to degraded or
    previously converted areas such that
    range of cropland expansion into
    natural areas is halved from
    2020 levels.
    (ii) Priority biodiversity and biospheric
    areas are experiencing no net loss of
    habitat due to agricultural expansion.
    (iii) Targets established and met for
    increase in per ha productivity
    No loss of natural habitat for
    commercial agro-commodity
    production and sourcing
    is occurring
    (9496)
    RoadsAt least 25 million km of new
    roads projected by 2050
    (a 60% increase in the total
    length of roads over that in
    2010); 70% of the world’s
    forests are less than 1 km from
    a forest edge
    (i) Transnational transport corridor
    projects that will affect priority
    biodiversity and biosphere function
    target areas are subject to
    international oversight of strategic
    road planning that minimizes impacts
    on biodiversity and biosphere
    function targets.
    (ii) Top 50 planned road networks or
    improvements that would directly
    affect priority biodiversity and
    biosphere function habitats and
    regions are not eligible for
    international financing.
    (iii) International financing is predicated
    on ensuring overpasses and
    underpasses in engineering designs
    to ensure integration of social and
    ecological connectivity
    All transnational transport corridor
    projects that can affect priority
    biodiversity and biosphere function
    target areas are subject to
    international oversight of strategic
    road planning that minimizes
    impacts on biodiversity and
    biosphere function targets. All
    planned road networks or
    improvements that would directly
    affect priority biodiversity and
    biosphere function habitats and
    regions are not eligible for
    international financing
    (78, 79, 97)
    Dams, barrages,
    channelizations
    More than 800,000 dams and
    45,000+ large dams exist;
    more than half the world’s
    rivers blocked by large dams,
    thousands of smaller dams
    being planned
    (i) No further planning or building of
    large- to medium-sized dams on the
    world’s rivers
    (ii) Maintain two-thirds of all headwaters
    of the Earth’s major river systems
    undammed by 2030 through
    protection and removal of blocking
    infrastructure
    Restoration of 25% of the world’s rivers
    to free-flowing state by 2050
    through removal of dams and
    barrages
    (57, 93, 98)
    OverfishingThe global marine catch peaked
    in 1996 and has been
    declining since, with more
    than 30% of fisheries
    collapsed; more than
    1000 species threatened with
    extinction due to fishing
    (i) Subsidies that contribute to
    overcapacity and overfishing
    are eliminated
    (ii) Global fishing capacity cut in half
    (iii) Regional Fisheries Management
    Organizations reformed and made
    accountable to a new independent
    global fisheries agency
    (i) End of overfishing
    (ii) All commercial fisheries
    management is science based and
    sustainable and is based on
    access rights
    (iii) Sustainable aquaculture based on
    non-fish feed has replaced half of
    the marine catch
    (24, 81, 99, 100)
    Wildlife tradeOverexploitation affects
    three-fourths of threatened
    species; wildlife products are
    legally traded internationally
    at volumes of an average of
    100 million whole organism
    equivalents per year over the
    past 10 years
    (i) Sport and commercial hunting of
    threatened terrestrial, marine, and
    freshwater animals and parts are
    banned nationally and internationally
    (ii) Agreements in place to prohibit
    international trade/sale/transport for
    commercial purposes of all
    wild-caught threatened species
    (i) Global ban in international transport
    for commercial purposes of all
    wildlife species and threatened
    plant taxa
    (ii) Global legislation and enforcement
    banning any trade in
    threatened species
    (iii) Legal trade volumes considered
    sustainable for all species
    (9, 100, 101)
    Invasive species~17,000+ invasive species
    documented
    (i) Solidify gains in the Actions and
    Milestones of Aichi Target 9 invasive
    alien species prevented and
    controlled, namely, “By 2020, invasive
    alien species and pathways are
    identified and prioritized, priority
    species are controlled or eradicated,
    and measures are in place to manage
    pathways to prevent their
    introduction and establishment.”
    (ii) Control of top plant or animal
    invasive species in 100 global
    priority islands
    (i) Solidify gains in the Actions and
    Milestones of Aichi Target 9 Invasive
    alien species prevented and
    controlled, namely, “By 2020,
    invasive alien species and pathways
    are identified and prioritized,
    priority species are controlled or
    eradicated, and measures are in
    place to manage pathways to
    prevent their introduction and
    establishment.”
    (ii) Control of top plant or animal
    invasive species in 200 global
    priority islands
    (84, 100)
    PlasticsThe amount of plastic making its
    way into the oceans is
    predicted to increase from
    9 million metric tons in 2015 to
    16 million metric tons in 2025
    Global ban on all nonrecyclable,
    single-use plastics; recycling of 30% of
    the world’s plastics
    To achieve the SDG target to “prevent
    and significantly reduce marine
    pollution” by 2025, the world needs to
    move from our current “linear
    economy” (make, use, dispose) to a
    circular economy in which resources
    do not become waste but instead are
    recovered and regenerated at the end
    of each service life. Government
    should embed the circular economy
    into national strategies
    Global ban on all single-use plastics;
    recycling of 50% of the
    world’s plastics
    (85, 86, 102)
    ToxinsCurrent widespread use of
    ecologically damaging toxins
    occurs, causing massive
    declines in global pollinators,
    invertebrate biomass,
    and degradation of
    aquatic ecosystems
    The most ecologically damaging classes
    of commercial toxins (e.g., certain
    pesticides, herbicides, nematocides,
    and fungicides, especially those that
    kill pollinators, poison freshwaters,
    and sterilize soils) no longer
    produced, sold, or used globally
    Global program to monitor and
    enforce no production, sale, and use
    of most ecologically damaging
    toxins, including testing newly
    developed commercial toxins
    (103)
    Ozone-depleting
    chemicals
    The Montreal Protocol on
    Substances that Deplete the
    Ozone Layer currently
    regulates ozone-depleting
    chemicals
    A global ban on production and use of
    ozone-depleting chemicals effectively
    enforced
    (104)

Supplementary Materials

  • Supplementary material for this article is available at http://advances.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/full/5/4/eaaw2869/DC1

    Section S1. Maps of important biodiversity and carbon layers

    Section S2. Underlying data for increasing representation of ecoregions by adding unprotected areas of high priority

    Section S3. Monitoring progress under the GDN from the ground to below the sea to space

    Fig. S1. Maps used to increase representation among terrestrial ecoregions and unprotected sites of biodiversity importance that contribute to the global milestone of 30% protected by 2030.

    Fig. S2. Maps showing total terrestrial carbon and overlap with intact large mammal assemblages.

    Fig. S3. Overlay of tiger conservation landscapes and protected areas.

    Table S1. Underlying data for increasing representation of ecoregions by adding unprotected areas of high priority.

    References (105109)

  • Supplementary Materials

    The PDF file includes:

    • Section S1. Maps of important biodiversity and carbon layers
    • Section S2. Underlying data for increasing representation of ecoregions by adding unprotected areas of high priority
    • Section S3. Monitoring progress under the GDN from the ground to below the sea to space
    • Fig. S1. Maps used to increase representation among terrestrial ecoregions and unprotected sites of biodiversity importance that contribute to the global milestone of 30% protected by 2030.
    • Fig. S2. Maps showing total terrestrial carbon and overlap with intact large mammal assemblages.
    • Fig. S3. Overlay of tiger conservation landscapes and protected areas.
    • Legend for table S1
    • References (105109)

    Download PDF

    Other Supplementary Material for this manuscript includes the following:

    • Table S1 (Microsoft Excel format). Underlying data for increasing representation of ecoregions by adding unprotected areas of high priority.

    Files in this Data Supplement:

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