Research ArticlePALEOCLIMATE

Central Europe temperature constrained by speleothem fluid inclusion water isotopes over the past 14,000 years

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Science Advances  05 Jun 2019:
Vol. 5, no. 6, eaav3809
DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.aav3809
  • Fig. 1 Location and spatial correlation maps.

    (A) Records discussed in the main text (stars) and the Supplementary Materials (dots) are shown together with the Laurentide and Fennoscandian ice sheet (LIS and FIS, respectively) extents at ~10.5 ka BP (30, 35). Pollen-gridded temperature differences (0.5 ka BP minus 10.5 ka BP; red is warming and blue is cooling) is also given (4). (1) Milandre Cave (red star; this study), (2) Bunker Cave, (3) Mediterranean site MD95-2043, (4) Kinderlinskaya Cave, (5) Greenland Ice Sheet Project 2 (GISP2), (6) North Greenland Ice Core Project (NGRIP), (7) Qunf Cave, (8) Cariaco Basin, (9) Gerzensee Lake, (10) Ammersee Lake, (11) Chauvet Cave, (12) Gemini Lake, and (13) Atlantic site MD99-2275 records. (B) Modern spatial correlation between Basel instrumental temperatures for the interval 1901–2014 and the CRU TS4.01 temperature dataset for Europe (see fig. S3). The red color indicates a high correlation between the temperature variations at the study site and the rest of Europe.

  • Fig. 2 New speleothem water and calcite isotopes and inferred paleotemperatures over the past 14,000 years for Milandre Cave compared with mid- and high-latitude records.

    (A) 230Th ages and 2σ errors for M6 and M8 stalagmites. (B) Stalagmite fluid inclusion δDfi records for M6 (black), M8 (red dots), and M8 replicate (dark red circles). (C) New composite (M6 and M8 stalagmites) temperature record (MC-FIT) and uncertainty. (D) Milandre noble gas temperatures (24). (E) Stalagmite fluid inclusion δ18Ofi records for M6 (black), M8 (red dots), and M8 replicate (dark red circles). (F) Stalagmite calcite δ18Oc for M6. (G) NGRIP ice core δ18O (21). (H) Lakes Ammersee (18) and (I) Gerzensee (19) δ18O records. The blue arrow corresponds to monitored cave temperature in 2012–2013 (15). B-A, Bølling-Allerød; YD, Younger Dryas; NGT, noble gas temperature; VPDB, Vienna Pee Dee Belemnite; VSMOW, Vienna Standard Mean Ocean Water.

  • Fig. 3 Northern Hemisphere key records and trends for the Holocene.

    Temperature records from (A) Greenland GISP2 ice core (10), (B) pollen from high- to mid-latitude areas with Scandinavia (34) (black), 53°N to 62°N/18°E to 27°E area (green) and 43°N to 49°N/5°E to 13°E area (brown) (4), (C) Germany (NGT) (20), and (D) Switzerland speleothems (this study). Water isotope records from (E) Switzerland speleothems (this study) and (F) Greenland NGRIP ice core (21). Precipitation records from (G) Oman speleothem (31) and (H) Venezuela marine sediments (41). Calcite oxygen isotope records from (I) Switzerland (this study) and (J) Germany (27) (yellow) speleothems. On (J), calculated drip water values (δ18Odw) (20) are also shown (gray) and show a similar behavior as Milandre Cave water isotopes. Linear fits over the past 10,000 or 8000 years.

  • Fig. 4 Holocene temperature records and forcing.

    Similar temperature reconstructions between the Greenland, Mediterranean Sea, and central Europe areas (A) that show a different early to middle Holocene trend compared to high-latitude proxies and model simulations (B). (A) Switzerland MC-FIT (black; this study), Mediterranean SST (23) (pink) (both smoothed with a seven-value running mean) and Greenland GISP2 temperature (10) (blue; 401 years running mean) are shown together with July insolation at 30°N (51)(gray) and LIS sea level rise rate (33) (red). (B) European pollen record (4) (green) and Eurasia δ18Oc (as winter temperature indicator) (5) (yellow). Also shown are Switzerland MC-FIT (black), regional CCSM3 (3) (orange), and mid-latitude band (30° to 60°N) LOVECLIM (10) (blue) transient simulations of mean annual temperatures. Anomalies are shifted for comparison.

Supplementary Materials

  • Supplementary material for this article is available at http://advances.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/full/5/6/eaav3809/DC1

    Supplementary Text

    Fig. S1. Stalagmites M6 and M8 with U-Th age locations.

    Fig. S2. Depth-age models for M6 and M8 stalagmites.

    Fig. S3. Spatial correlation maps for temperatures and isotopes.

    Fig. S4. Original δ18O time series for M6 and M8 stalagmites.

    Fig. S5. Timing of Milandre Cave calcite δ18Oc shifts compared with other oxygen records.

    Fig. S6. Temperature reconstruction (MC-FIT) and uncertainties from speleothem fluid inclusions.

    Fig. S7. Comparison of MC-FIT (black lines) with independent temperature records for the Holocene.

    Fig. S8. Influence of volcanism on decadal temperature average.

    Fig. S9. Comparison between reconstructed (MC-FIT), instrumental, and multiproxy temperature records.

    Table S1. 230Th ages of M6 and M8 stalagmites from the Milandre Cave.

    Table S2. List of fix points.

    Table S3. TF impact for different time interval.

    References (5258)

  • Supplementary Materials

    This PDF file includes:

    • Supplementary Text
    • Fig. S1. Stalagmites M6 and M8 with U-Th age locations.
    • Fig. S2. Depth-age models for M6 and M8 stalagmites.
    • Fig. S3. Spatial correlation maps for temperatures and isotopes.
    • Fig. S4. Original δ18O time series for M6 and M8 stalagmites.
    • Fig. S5. Timing of Milandre Cave calcite δ18Oc shifts compared with other oxygen records.
    • Fig. S6. Temperature reconstruction (MC-FIT) and uncertainties from speleothem fluid inclusions.
    • Fig. S7. Comparison of MC-FIT (black lines) with independent temperature records for the Holocene.
    • Fig. S8. Influence of volcanism on decadal temperature average.
    • Fig. S9. Comparison between reconstructed (MC-FIT), instrumental, and multiproxy temperature records.
    • Table S1. 230Th ages of M6 and M8 stalagmites from the Milandre Cave.
    • Table S2. List of fix points.
    • Table S3. TF impact for different time interval.
    • References (5258)

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