Research ArticleANTHROPOLOGY

The origins of cannabis smoking: Chemical residue evidence from the first millennium BCE in the Pamirs

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Science Advances  12 Jun 2019:
Vol. 5, no. 6, eaaw1391
DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.aaw1391
  • Fig. 1 Location of the Jirzankal Cemetery.

    (A) Map of Eurasia showing the location of the Pamir Plateau and the sites mentioned in this study. (B) Topographic map of the Pamir Plateau and location of the Jirzankal Cemetery.

  • Fig. 2 Typical landscape of the Jirzankal Cemetery.

    (A) Plan view of the Jirzankal Cemetery; (B) black and white stone strips on the cemetery surface; (C) circular burial mounds with stone rings. Photo credit: X. Wu (Institute of Archaeology, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences).

  • Fig. 3 Archaeological wooden braziers from the Jirzankal cemetery.

    (A) Plan view of zone B of the Jirzankal Cemetery, (B) aerial view of zone B, and (C) 10 wooden braziers excavated from the cemetery. Red dots in (A) refer to the tombs containing wooden braziers; brazier M49:2 was excavated from zone D. Photo credit: X. Wu (Institute of Archaeology, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences).

  • Fig. 4 Chromatograms of the ancient cannabis and the inner charred surface of the wooden brazier M25:2.

    (A) Total ion current (TIC) chromatogram of the ancient cannabis from the Jiayi Cemetery, Turpan showing the presence of C16:0 (hexadecanoic acid), C18:0 (octadecanoic acid), and CBN. (B) Chromatogram in select ion mode (SIM) of the ancient cannabis showing several cannabinoids: CBN, cannabidiol (CBD) and cannabicyclol (CBL); (C) TIC chromatogram of the internal charred fragment of wooden brazier M25:2 from the Jirzankal Cemetery; and (D) SIM chromatogram of the internal charred fragment of wooden brazier M25:2.

  • Table 1 GC-MS results for wooden brazier fragments and burnt stone samples.

    I and E refer to internal and external surface fragments of the wooden braziers, respectively; S refers to stones inside the wooden braziers. CBN, cannabinol; CBV, cannabivarin.

    Laboratory
    number*
    Sample codeSample
    description
    Cannabinoids
    1IM9:1Internal charred
    surface
    CBN
    1EM9:1External surface
    2IM9:2Internal charred
    surface
    CBN
    2EM9:2External surface
    3IM11:14Internal charred
    surface
    CBN
    3EM11:14External surface
    4IM12:4Internal charred
    surface
    CBN
    4EM12:4External surface
    5IM14:23Internal charred
    surface
    CBN
    5EM14:23External surface
    6IM15:3Internal charred
    surface
    CBN
    6EM15:3External surface
    7IM23:14Internal charred
    surface
    7EM23:14External surface
    8IM25:2Internal charred
    surface
    CBV, CBN
    8EM25:2External surface
    9IM25:17Internal charred
    surface
    CBN
    9EM25:17External surface
    10IM49:2Internal charred
    surface
    CBN
    10EM49:2External surface
    11SM11:14Burnt stone
    12SM14:23Burnt stoneCBN
    13SM23:14Burnt stone
    14SM25:2Burnt stoneCBN

Supplementary Materials

  • Supplementary material for this article is available at http://advances.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/full/5/6/eaaw1391/DC1

    Table S1. Radiocarbon dates from the Jirzankal Cemetery.

    Fig. S1. Ancient cannabis plant from tomb M231 (ca. 790–520 BCE) at the Jiayi Cemetery in Turpan, Xinjiang.

    Fig. S2. Chromatograms of the wooden brazier M9:1 from the Jirzankal Cemetery.

    Fig. S3. Chromatograms of the wooden brazier M9:2 from the Jirzankal Cemetery.

    Fig. S4. Chromatograms of the wooden brazier M11:14 from the Jirzankal Cemetery.

    Fig. S5. Chromatograms of the wooden brazier M12:4 from the Jirzankal Cemetery.

    Fig. S6. Chromatograms of the wooden brazier M14:23 from the Jirzankal Cemetery.

    Fig. S7. Chromatograms of the wooden brazier M15:3 from the Jirzankal Cemetery.

    Fig. S8. Chromatograms of the wooden brazier M23:14 from the Jirzankal Cemetery.

    Fig. S9. Chromatograms of the wooden brazier M25:2 from the Jirzankal Cemetery.

    Fig. S10. Chromatograms of the wooden brazier M25:17 from the Jirzankal Cemetery.

    Fig. S11. Chromatograms of the wooden brazier M49:2 from the Jirzankal Cemetery.

    Fig. S12. Chromatograms of the burnt stone in the wooden brazier M11:14 from the Jirzankal Cemetery.

    Fig. S13. Chromatograms of the burnt stone in the wooden brazier M14:23 from the Jirzankal Cemetery.

    Fig. S14. Chromatograms of the burnt stone in the wooden brazier M23:14 from the Jirzankal Cemetery.

    Fig. S15. Chromatograms of the burnt stone in the wooden brazier M25:2 from the Jirzankal Cemetery.

  • Supplementary Materials

    This PDF file includes:

    • Table S1. Radiocarbon dates from the Jirzankal Cemetery.
    • Fig. S1. Ancient cannabis plant from tomb M231 (ca. 790–520 BCE) at the Jiayi Cemetery in Turpan, Xinjiang.
    • Fig. S2. Chromatograms of the wooden brazier M9:1 from the Jirzankal Cemetery.
    • Fig. S3. Chromatograms of the wooden brazier M9:2 from the Jirzankal Cemetery.
    • Fig. S4. Chromatograms of the wooden brazier M11:14 from the Jirzankal Cemetery.
    • Fig. S5. Chromatograms of the wooden brazier M12:4 from the Jirzankal Cemetery.
    • Fig. S6. Chromatograms of the wooden brazier M14:23 from the Jirzankal Cemetery.
    • Fig. S7. Chromatograms of the wooden brazier M15:3 from the Jirzankal Cemetery.
    • Fig. S8. Chromatograms of the wooden brazier M23:14 from the Jirzankal Cemetery.
    • Fig. S9. Chromatograms of the wooden brazier M25:2 from the Jirzankal Cemetery.
    • Fig. S10. Chromatograms of the wooden brazier M25:17 from the Jirzankal Cemetery.
    • Fig. S11. Chromatograms of the wooden brazier M49:2 from the Jirzankal Cemetery.
    • Fig. S12. Chromatograms of the burnt stone in the wooden brazier M11:14 from the Jirzankal Cemetery.
    • Fig. S13. Chromatograms of the burnt stone in the wooden brazier M14:23 from the Jirzankal Cemetery.
    • Fig. S14. Chromatograms of the burnt stone in the wooden brazier M23:14 from the Jirzankal Cemetery.
    • Fig. S15. Chromatograms of the burnt stone in the wooden brazier M25:2 from the Jirzankal Cemetery.

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