Research ArticleEVOLUTIONARY BIOLOGY

A dynamic continental moisture gradient drove Amazonian bird diversification

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Science Advances  03 Jul 2019:
Vol. 5, no. 7, eaat5752
DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.aat5752
  • Fig. 1 Amazon region.

    Summary of the area of inquiry of this study, with major interfluvia (or endemism areas) associated with different geological provinces depicted in red (Guiana Shield), gray (Amazonian foreland basins), and green (Brazilian Shield) colors.

  • Fig. 2 Summary spatiotemporal diversification pattern of Amazonian terra-firme bird species.

    (A) Species tree and ancestral area reconstruction scenario exemplifying a counterclockwise pattern of cladogenesis observed from our analyses. Splitting dates and ancestral area reconstructions for each node were estimated on the basis of coalescent multilocus species trees obtained for each of the 21 species and species complexes showing this pattern of diversification (see table S2.3 for more details). (B) Lineage through time plots divided by nonpasserine and passerine birds, as well as one estimated for all lineages combined, based on our multilocus species tree reconstructions. Time is informed in million years.

  • Fig. 3 Modern barriers separating lineages of 23 Amazonian upland terra firme birds.

    (A) Percentage of modern barrier types separating lineages of the species and species complexes sampled. (B) Detailed counts for diversification events through time coincident with the presence of modern Amazonian rivers (top graph), within interfluvial regions and across the Andes (bottom graph). Dotted bars represent SDs for time estimates obtained with *BEAST analyses. Note that older lineages were often putatively separated by western rivers.

  • Fig. 4 Climate suitability predicted from past and current species distribution models.

    Percentage of reduction in climate suitability during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), across the Amazon, averaged from all the 23 terra firme bird ecological niche models considering the (A) Community Climate System Model (CCSM) and the (B) Model for Interdisciplinary Research On Climate (MIROC) climatic conditions.

  • Fig. 5 Demographic trends during the past 300 thousand years in putative refugia and non-refugia.

    Top row: Putative refugia [(A) Guiana, (B) Napo, and (C) Rondonia]. Bottom row: putative non-refugia [(D) Jau/Imeri and (E) Xingu/Belem). Black dotted lines represent the expected demographic trends under refugia and non-refugia during glacial (0.16 to 0.21 Ma) and nonglacial periods. Straight lines depict median demographic trends inferred from coalescent-based Bayesian analyses for each sampled lineage within a given interfluve, and pie charts depict the percentage of each type of demographic event: black, stability; dark gray, expansion; and light gray, decline (see fig. S4 for more detailed information).

  • Fig. 6 Model of regional biological diversification for Amazonian upland terra firme birds.

    (A) By the late Pliocene, most ancestral lineages inhabited northern and western Amazonia. (B) During the Plio-Pleistocene boundary, most of the earliest splits occurred across the Guiana Shield, the western Amazonian foreland basins, and the westernmost part of the Brazilian Shield and involved lineages currently separated by the Amazon-Solimões and Negro rivers. Colonization of central southern Amazonia started during this time (represented by the blue arrows). (C) During the mid-Pleistocene, diversification events were most frequently observed in the western Amazonian foreland basins and the western part of the Brazilian Shield and involved lineages currently separated by the Solimões, Madeira, and Tapajos rivers, with inferred colonization toward southeastern Amazonia. (D) During the late Pleistocene, the center of diversification shifted to the Brazilian Shield, with lineages continuing to spread eastward and most splits taking place across the Madeira, Tapajos, and Xingu drainages. (E) However, because of river course dynamics particularly in the Madeira and Tapajos drainages, the process of diversification was reversed westward for some lineages. (F) Most recently, climate-driven retraction followed by recolonization allowed modern diversification events in southeasternmost Amazonia, with most splits involving lineages situated on opposite banks of the Xingu and Tocantins rivers.

Supplementary Materials

  • Supplementary material for this article is available at http://advances.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/full/5/7/eaat5752/DC1

    Table S1. Genetic dataset of Amazonian bird species and species complexes analyzed, including GenBank accession numbers for the new sequences generated for this study.

    Table S2. Set of tables summarizing patterns of diversification for each species/species complex analyzed, including time estimates, ancestral areas, putative riverine barriers, and likelihood values for all models tested by BioGeoBEARS.

    Table S3. Set of tables summarizing lineage through time analyses.

    Fig. S1. Sampling localities for each species or complex of species used for molecular analyses.

    Fig. S2. Species trees and species biogeographic scenarios.

    Fig. S3. Species distribution models.

    Fig. S4. Extended Bayesian skyline plots.

    References (6168)

  • Supplementary Materials

    The PDF file includes:

    • Table S1. Genetic dataset of Amazonian bird species and species complexes analyzed, including GenBank accession numbers for the new sequences generated for this study.
    • Table S3. Set of tables summarizing lineage through time analyses.
    • Fig. S1. Sampling localities for each species or complex of species used for molecular analyses.
    • Fig. S2. Species trees and species biogeographic scenarios.
    • Fig. S3. Species distribution models.
    • Fig. S4. Extended Bayesian skyline plots.
    • References (6168)

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    Other Supplementary Material for this manuscript includes the following:

    • Table S2 (Microsoft Excel format). Set of tables summarizing patterns of diversification for each species/species complex analyzed, including time estimates, ancestral areas, putative riverine barriers, and likelihood values for all models tested by BioGeoBEARS.

    Files in this Data Supplement:

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