Research ArticleAPPLIED PHYSICS

Metal oxide semiconductor nanomembrane–based soft unnoticeable multifunctional electronics for wearable human-machine interfaces

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Science Advances  02 Aug 2019:
Vol. 5, no. 8, eaav9653
DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.aav9653
  • Fig. 1 Ultrathin, stretchable, mechanically imperceptible, multifunctional HMI device for human and robotics.

    (A) Schematic exploded view of an ultrathin multifunctional HMI device. (B) Optical image of the device on a human forearm. Inset is a magnified image. (C) SEM image of the device on a piece of replicated skin. (D) Optical images of the device on a human skin under mechanical deformation: compressed (left) and stretched (right). (E) Schematic exploded view of the temperature sensor array for the robotic hand. (F) Optical image of the temperature sensor array on a robotic hand. Inset is a magnified image. (G) SEM images of the temperature sensor array. (H) Optical images of the temperature sensor array on the robotic hand under mechanical deformation: bent (left) and stretched (right). Photo credit: Kyoseung Sim, University of Houston.

  • Fig. 2 Characteristics of the ReRAM and FETs.

    (A) Schematic exploded view of the IZO nanomembrane–based ReRAM. (B) Optical microscopic image of the ReRAM. (C) I-V characteristics of the bipolar switching of the ReRAM. (D) WRER cycle of the ReRAM. (E) Sequential images of the IZO nanomembrane–based ReRAM under strain and corresponding FEA results of IZO. (F) Current at LRS and HRS and ILRS/IHRS under strain. (G) Schematic exploded view of the IZO FET. (H) Optical microscopic image of the FET. (I) Output characteristics of the FET. (J) Transfer characteristics of the FET. (K) Sequential images of the FETs under strain and corresponding FEA results of IZO. (L) Calculated field-effect mobility of the IZO and ION/IOFF of the FET under strain.

  • Fig. 3 Characteristics of UV and temperature sensors.

    (A) Schematic exploded view of the IZO nanomembrane–based UV sensor. (B) Optical microscopic image of the UV sensor. (C) I-V characteristics of the UV sensor. (D) Calibration curve of the IZO UV sensor. (E) Sequential images of the UV sensor under strain and corresponding FEA results of IZO. (F) IUV/Idark for UV light under strain. (G) Schematic exploded view of the IZO temperature sensor. (H) Optical microscopic image of the temperature sensor. (I) Calibration curve of the temperature sensor. (J) Plot of lnR versus 1000/T of the temperature sensor. (K) Sequential images of the IZO temperature sensor under strain and corresponding FEA results of IZO. (L) Relative resistance change of the temperature sensor under strain.

  • Fig. 4 Characteristics of strain sensor.

    (A) Schematic exploded view of the IZO strain sensor. (B) Optical microscopic image of the strain sensor. (C) Calibration curve of the strain sensor. (D) Relative resistance change of the strain sensor under cyclic stretching and relaxing. (E) Sequential images of the strain sensor under strain and corresponding FEA results of IZO.

  • Fig. 5 Wearable closed-loop HMI.

    (A) Representative image of human motion to control the robotic hand. (B) Resistance change of strain sensor on the human skin under different human motions. (C) Representative image of human motion mimicking. (D) Resistance change of strain sensor on human motion mimicking. (E) Representative image of the robotic hand, with the temperature sensor touching the human hand. (F) Resistance change of the temperature sensor on the robotic hand while human hand holds the robot. (G) Schematic exploded view of the resistive microheater. (H) IR temperature mapping of the microheater. (I) Dynamic temperature change under different applied voltages. (J) Calibration curve of the microheater. Photo credit: Kyoseung Sim, University of Houston.

Supplementary Materials

  • Supplementary material for this article is available at http://advances.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/full/5/8/eaav9653/DC1

    Finite-element analysis

    Characteristics of the FETs

    Calculation of the β and α values of the IZO temperature sensor

    Gauge factor calculation of the IZO strain sensor

    Fig. S1. Ultrathin imperceptible multifunctional HMI device.

    Fig. S2. Schematic illustration of the sol-gel-on-polymer–processed IZO nanomembrane–based multifunctional ultrathin stretchable and imperceptible HMI devices.

    Fig. S3. Transferring the ultrathin imperceptible HMI device onto the human forearm.

    Fig. S4. Strategy of enhanced stability for the ultrathin imperceptible HMI device on a human forearm.

    Fig. S5. Characteristics of the IZO nanomembrane.

    Fig. S6. IZO nanomembrane–based ReRAM.

    Fig. S7. Schematic illustration of the working mechanism of the IZO nanomembrane–based ReRAM.

    Fig. S8. Electrical characteristics of the IZO nanomembrane–based ReRAM.

    Fig. S9. Sequential images of the IZO ReRAM under stretching and corresponding FEA results of the electrode.

    Fig. S10. Electrical characteristics of the IZO ReRAM under mechanical stretching.

    Fig. S11. IZO nanomembrane–based FET.

    Fig. S12. Dynamic response of the IZO FETs.

    Fig. S13. Sequential images of the IZO FETs under mechanical stretching and corresponding FEA results of the gate dielectric, SU-8.

    Fig. S14. Sequential images of the IZO FETs under mechanical stretching and corresponding FEA results of the electrode.

    Fig. S15. Electrical characteristics of the IZO FETs under mechanical stretching.

    Fig. S16. Cyclic ON/OFF reliability and stability of the IZO FETs.

    Fig. S17. Transfer characteristics of IZO FETs as fabricated and after 2 years.

    Fig. S18. IZO nanomembrane–based UV sensor.

    Fig. S19. I-V characteristics of the IZO UV sensor under different intensities of UV light.

    Fig. S20. Sequential images of the IZO UV sensor under mechanical stretching and corresponding FEA results of the electrode.

    Fig. S21. Electrical characteristics of the IZO UV sensor under mechanical stretching.

    Fig. S22. IZO nanomembrane–based temperature sensor.

    Fig. S23. Electrical characteristics of the IZO temperature sensor.

    Fig. S24. Sequential images of the IZO temperature sensor under mechanical stretching and corresponding FEA results of the electrode.

    Fig. S25. Electrical characteristics of the IZO temperature sensor under mechanical stretching.

    Fig. S26. IZO nanomembrane–based strain sensor.

    Fig. S27. Resistance change of the serpentine electrode under mechanical stretching.

    Fig. S28. Sequential images of the IZO strain sensor under mechanical stretching and corresponding FEA results of the electrode.

    Fig. S29. FEA results of the IZO strain sensor for strain distribution on Au electrode and IZO under mechanical strain of 30% at different strain rates.

    Fig. S30. Schematic illustration of a closed-loop HMI.

    Table S1. Summary of the response time parameters extracted from fig. S11.

    Table S2. Summary of the strain ratio (electrode/semiconductor) at different strain rates.

    References (4346)

  • Supplementary Materials

    This PDF file includes:

    • Finite-element analysis
    • Characteristics of the FETs
    • Calculation of the β and α values of the IZO temperature sensor
    • Gauge factor calculation of the IZO strain sensor
    • Fig. S1. Ultrathin imperceptible multifunctional HMI device.
    • Fig. S2. Schematic illustration of the sol-gel-on-polymer–processed IZO nanomembrane–based multifunctional ultrathin stretchable and imperceptible HMI devices.
    • Fig. S3. Transferring the ultrathin imperceptible HMI device onto the human forearm.
    • Fig. S4. Strategy of enhanced stability for the ultrathin imperceptible HMI device on a human forearm.
    • Fig. S5. Characteristics of the IZO nanomembrane.
    • Fig. S6. IZO nanomembrane–based ReRAM.
    • Fig. S7. Schematic illustration of the working mechanism of the IZO nanomembrane–based ReRAM.
    • Fig. S8. Electrical characteristics of the IZO nanomembrane–based ReRAM.
    • Fig. S9. Sequential images of the IZO ReRAM under stretching and corresponding FEA results of the electrode.
    • Fig. S10. Electrical characteristics of the IZO ReRAM under mechanical stretching.
    • Fig. S11. IZO nanomembrane–based FET.
    • Fig. S12. Dynamic response of the IZO FETs.
    • Fig. S13. Sequential images of the IZO FETs under mechanical stretching and corresponding FEA results of the gate dielectric, SU-8.
    • Fig. S14. Sequential images of the IZO FETs under mechanical stretching and corresponding FEA results of the electrode.
    • Fig. S15. Electrical characteristics of the IZO FETs under mechanical stretching.
    • Fig. S16. Cyclic ON/OFF reliability and stability of the IZO FETs.
    • Fig. S17. Transfer characteristics of IZO FETs as fabricated and after 2 years.
    • Fig. S18. IZO nanomembrane–based UV sensor.
    • Fig. S19. I-V characteristics of the IZO UV sensor under different intensities of UV light.
    • Fig. S20. Sequential images of the IZO UV sensor under mechanical stretching and corresponding FEA results of the electrode.
    • Fig. S21. Electrical characteristics of the IZO UV sensor under mechanical stretching.
    • Fig. S22. IZO nanomembrane–based temperature sensor.
    • Fig. S23. Electrical characteristics of the IZO temperature sensor.
    • Fig. S24. Sequential images of the IZO temperature sensor under mechanical stretching and corresponding FEA results of the electrode.
    • Fig. S25. Electrical characteristics of the IZO temperature sensor under mechanical stretching.
    • Fig. S26. IZO nanomembrane–based strain sensor.
    • Fig. S27. Resistance change of the serpentine electrode under mechanical stretching.
    • Fig. S28. Sequential images of the IZO strain sensor under mechanical stretching and corresponding FEA results of the electrode.
    • Fig. S29. FEA results of the IZO strain sensor for strain distribution on Au electrode and IZO under mechanical strain of 30% at different strain rates.
    • Fig. S30. Schematic illustration of a closed-loop HMI.
    • Table S1. Summary of the response time parameters extracted from fig. S11.
    • Table S2. Summary of the strain ratio (electrode/semiconductor) at different strain rates.
    • References (4346)

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