Research ArticleAPPLIED PHYSICS

Ultrafast extreme rejuvenation of metallic glasses by shock compression

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Science Advances  23 Aug 2019:
Vol. 5, no. 8, eaaw6249
DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.aaw6249
  • Fig. 1 Self-unloading shock compression technique.

    (A) Schematic of the light-gas gun-driven plate impact experimental configuration. PMMA, poly(methyl methacrylate). (B) Time versus distance diagram that illustrates the stress wave propagation in the flyer and targets. (C) FSV history of the front (solid lines) and back (solid + dashed lines) targets under different initial impact velocities of the flyer. Hugoniot elastic limit (HEL) is the dynamic yield strength of materials.

  • Fig. 2 Ultrafast extreme rejuvenation of metallic glasses.

    (A) Differential scanning calorimetry curves. Inset shows the close up of the excess enthalpy of relaxation below Tg, i.e., the region highlighted by the dashed rectangle. a.u., arbitrary units. (B) Excess relaxation enthalpy versus peak stress (bottom x axis) and initial impact velocity (top x axis) of the shock compression.

  • Fig. 3 Excess relaxation enthalpy of rejuvenated metallic glasses as a function of the time scale of various rejuvenation methods, including shock compression in this study, elastostatic compression (10, 15, 3034), cycling compression (35), triaxial compression (8), high-pressure annealing (36), thermal cycling (4, 37), uniaxial compression (38), high-pressure torsion (39), and dynamic excitation upon cooling (40).
  • Fig. 4 Structural characterization of the rejuvenated metallic glasses.

    (A to D) HRTEM images of the rejuvenated states under initial impact velocities of 270, 360, 480, and 520 m/s, respectively. (E) RDFs of the as-cast and rejuvenated glasses deduced from the SAED patterns inserted in (A) to (D) and fig. S1B.

  • Fig. 5 BPs of the as-cast and rejuvenated metallic glasses.

    (A) The plot of (Cp − γT)/T3 versus T in the temperature interval of 2 to 50 K. (B) Correlation between the excess relaxation enthalpy and the BP temperature.

  • Fig. 6 Spatiotemporal mechanism for ultrafast extreme rejuvenation of metallic glasses.

    (A) Relaxation enthalpy ΔHrel as a function of λIR. (B) Deborah number De versus loading time at different shock velocities.

Supplementary Materials

  • Supplementary material for this article is available at http://advances.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/full/5/8/eaaw6249/DC1

    Section S1. Structural characterizations of the as-cast Zr55Cu30Ni5Al10 bulk metallic glass

    Section S2. Stress and strain state analysis for the front target

    Section S3. Experimental data about rejuvenation of metallic glasses from literature

    Section S4. Diffraction profile analysis of SAED patterns

    Section S5. Nanoindentation measurements and analyses

    Section S6. Determination of the electronic Cp contribution

    Section S7. Theoretical fitting of low-temperature heat capacity data

    Section S8. Calculations of the constitutive behaviors of metallic glasses

    Table S1. The triaxial stress and the 1D strain state in the front target under different impact velocities.

    Table S2. Relaxation enthalpy of metallic glasses by various rejuvenation methods.

    Table S3. All parameters related to the BP analyses.

    Fig. S1. Structural characterizations of the as-cast Zr55Cu30Ni5Al10 bulk metallic glass.

    Fig. S2. Correlation between excess relaxation enthalpy and calculated shock strain.

    Fig. S3. Diffraction profiles of SAED patterns.

    Fig. S4. Correlation between excess relaxation enthalpy and first peak position of reduced diffraction profile.

    Fig. S5. Nanoindentation measurements on the as-cast and rejuvenated glasses.

    Fig. S6. Determination of the electronic contribution to low-temperature specific heat capacity.

    Fig. S7. Theoretical fitting of low-temperature heat capacity data.

    Fig. S8. Constitutive responses of the Zr55Cu30Ni5Al10 bulk metallic glass under the present high–strain rate loading.

  • Supplementary Materials

    This PDF file includes:

    • Section S1. Structural characterizations of the as-cast Zr55Cu30Ni5Al10 bulk metallic glass
    • Section S2. Stress and strain state analysis for the front target
    • Section S3. Experimental data about rejuvenation of metallic glasses from literature
    • Section S4. Diffraction profile analysis of SAED patterns
    • Section S5. Nanoindentation measurements and analyses
    • Section S6. Determination of the electronic Cp contribution
    • Section S7. Theoretical fitting of low-temperature heat capacity data
    • Section S8. Calculations of the constitutive behaviors of metallic glasses
    • Table S1. The triaxial stress and the 1D strain state in the front target under different impact velocities.
    • Table S2. Relaxation enthalpy of metallic glasses by various rejuvenation methods.
    • Table S3. All parameters related to the BP analyses.
    • Fig. S1. Structural characterizations of the as-cast Zr55Cu30Ni5Al10 bulk metallic glass.
    • Fig. S2. Correlation between excess relaxation enthalpy and calculated shock strain.
    • Fig. S3. Diffraction profiles of SAED patterns.
    • Fig. S4. Correlation between excess relaxation enthalpy and first peak position of reduced diffraction profile.
    • Fig. S5. Nanoindentation measurements on the as-cast and rejuvenated glasses.
    • Fig. S6. Determination of the electronic contribution to low-temperature specific heat capacity.
    • Fig. S7. Theoretical fitting of low-temperature heat capacity data.
    • Fig. S8. Constitutive responses of the Zr55Cu30Ni5Al10 bulk metallic glass under the present high–strain rate loading.

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