Research ArticleAPPLIED PHYSICS

Near-UV to mid-IR reflectance imaging spectroscopy of paintings on the macroscale

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Science Advances  23 Aug 2019:
Vol. 5, no. 8, eaaw7794
DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.aaw7794

Figures

  • Fig. 1 Mock-up painting: Mapping pigments and fillers.

    (A) Color detail of the mock-up painting. (B) Map obtained with the portion of the spectral endmember (C) containing the 1100-nm band of phthalo blue. (D) Map of the filler CaCO3 obtained from the portion of the mid-IR spectral endmember (E). (F) Map obtained using the combined spectral portions of the spectral endmember (C and E) used to map the pigment, phthalo blue, and the filler, CaCO3. (G) Map obtained with the first derivative of the spectral endmember of the cadmium red pigment (H). (I) Map of the filler BaSO4 obtained from the first derivative portion of the mid-IR spectral endmember (J). (K) Map obtained using the combined spectral portions of the endmember used to map the pigment and the filler.

  • Fig. 2 Mock-up painting: Mapping binders.

    (A) Color detail of the mock-up painting. (B to D) Maps of drying oil (green), alkyd (blue), and acrylic (red) binders obtained from using the spectral endmembers shown in the graph (E) obtained from the BR-RIS spectral image cube.

  • Fig. 3 Praying Prophet by Lorenzo Monaco: Mapping binders.

    (A) Color image of Lorenzo Monaco’s Praying Prophet (ca. 1410/1413), Rosenwald Collection, National Gallery of Art. (B) Map of the C─H lipidic spectral feature associated with egg yolk (C). (D) Map of carbonyl group (C═O) spectral features (E) associated with the proteic (amide I) and lipidic component (5797 nm or 1725 cm−1) in egg yolk. (F) Map of ultramarine and polysaccharide spectral features (G) associated with the blue portions of the initial E and blue areas of the marginalia.

  • Fig. 4 Praying Prophet by Lorenzo Monaco: Mapping lake pigments and associated substrate.

    (A) Color image of the Praying Prophet. (B) CaCO3 map. (C) Overlay of the map obtained from the spectral features of the pink lake and CaCO3 (D). (E) Overlay of the map obtained from the spectral features of the yellow lake and CaCO3 (F). (G) Overlay of the map obtained from the spectral features of the yellow lake, azurite, and CaCO3 (H).

  • Fig. 5 Christ and the Virgin Enthroned with Forty Saints: Identification and mapping of azurite and mixite in blue areas.

    (A) Color image of the Master of the Dominican Effigies’ Christ and the Virgin Enthroned with Forty Saints (ca. 1340), Rosenwald Collection, National Gallery of Art. (B) Color detail studied. (C) Map of azurite obtained from the reflectance spectrum (H). (D) Elemental map of zinc (Kα). (E) Elemental map of As (Kβ). (F) Map of the As─OH reflectance feature attributed to mixite and the spectral features of azurite in visible and NIR (I). (G) Mid-IR reflectance spectra of the dark blue and light blue areas, in addition to mixite and azurite standards.

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