Research ArticleANTHROPOLOGY

Calcium isotopic patterns in enamel reflect different nursing behaviors among South African early hominins

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Science Advances  28 Aug 2019:
Vol. 5, no. 8, eaax3250
DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.aax3250
  • Fig. 1 Intraindividual and interindividual variability of tooth enamel δ44/42Ca values in modern and fossil hominins.

    (A to F) Distribution of the enamel δ44/42Ca values according to tooth types. The two microsampling spots processed in each tooth are linked, the “upper” spot being on the left side and the “lower” spot on the right. Error bars are two SDs of the mean. (G to I) Distribution of the enamel δ44/42Ca values according to reconstructed dental age. See Methods, table S2, and Supplementary Data for explanations on the dental age reconstruction. Error bars are 1 SD of the mean. Shadowed areas incorporate the uncertainties of the δ44/42Ca values and of the dental age.

Supplementary Materials

  • Supplementary material for this article is available at http://advances.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/full/5/8/eaax3250/DC1

    Fig. S1. Three isotopes plot: δ43/42Ca (‰) as a function of δ44/42Ca (‰) relative to ICP Ca Lyon.

    Fig. S2. Heat map of geochemical data.

    Fig. S3. Distributions of the Sr/Ba ratios and δ44/42Ca values in the hominins and associated fossil fauna.

    Fig. S4. Distributions Sr/Ba and δ44/42Ca values in late-forming teeth.

    Fig. S5. Distributions of known or estimated isotope compositions of primary Ca dietary sources (‰) relative to ICP Ca Lyon.

    Fig. S6. Intraindividual and interindividual variability of tooth enamel Sr/Ca values in fossil hominins.

    Fig. S7. Intraindividual and interindividual variability of tooth enamel Ba/Ca values in fossil hominins.

    Fig. S8. Diagram of the measurements for dental age reconstruction for a molar and an incisor.

    Fig. S9. Comparison of enamel mineralization calendars in hominins.

    Fig. S10. Correlation between age and δ44/42Ca values.

    Fig. S11. Correlation between diet and milk δ44/42Ca values.

    Table S1. Geochemical data (Sr/Ca, Ba/Ca, Sr, Ba, U, Mn, δ44/42Ca, and δ43/42Ca) of hominins, associated fauna, and modern gorilla.

    Table S2. Chronology of dental development in hominins.

    Table S3. Measurement data for hominin dental age determination.

    Table S4. Compilation of diet and milk δ44/42Ca values available in the literature.

    Supplementary Data

  • Supplementary Materials

    This PDF file includes:

    • Fig. S1. Three isotopes plot: δ43/42Ca (‰) as a function of δ44/42Ca (‰) relative to ICP Ca Lyon.
    • Fig. S2. Heat map of geochemical data.
    • Fig. S3. Distributions of the Sr/Ba ratios and δ44/42Ca values in the hominins and associated fossil fauna.
    • Fig. S4. Distributions Sr/Ba and δ44/42Ca values in late-forming teeth.
    • Fig. S5. Distributions of known or estimated isotope compositions of primary Ca dietary sources (‰) relative to ICP Ca Lyon.
    • Fig. S6. Intraindividual and interindividual variability of tooth enamel Sr/Ca values in fossil hominins.
    • Fig. S7. Intraindividual and interindividual variability of tooth enamel Ba/Ca values in fossil hominins.
    • Fig. S8. Diagram of the measurements for dental age reconstruction for a molar and an incisor.
    • Fig. S9. Comparison of enamel mineralization calendars in hominins.
    • Fig. S10. Correlation between age and δ44/42Ca values.
    • Fig. S11. Correlation between diet and milk δ44/42Ca values.
    • Table S1. Geochemical data (Sr/Ca, Ba/Ca, Sr, Ba, U, Mn, δ44/42Ca, and δ43/42Ca) of hominins, associated fauna, and modern gorilla.
    • Table S2. Chronology of dental development in hominins.
    • Table S3. Measurement data for hominin dental age determination.
    • Table S4. Compilation of diet and milk δ44/42Ca values available in the literature.
    • Supplementary Data

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