Research ArticleGEOLOGY

Decadal-scale shifts in soil hydraulic properties as induced by altered precipitation

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Science Advances  11 Sep 2019:
Vol. 5, no. 9, eaau6635
DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.aau6635
  • Fig. 1 Characterization of experimental water regimes.

    (A) Total annual rainfall at the Konza Prairie Biological Station (Control) and total rainfall plus water applied as part of the ITE (Irrigated). (B) Volumetric soil water content (daily means across six sets of sensors) in control and irrigated transects for an example year. (C) Distribution of soil water content at the experimental site for an 8-year period (2008–2015).

  • Fig. 2 Soil infiltration and porosity.

    (A) Infiltration rates (mean ± SE across pairs of plot-level values) at the five pressure potentials evaluated. Pore diameters are those of the largest pores transmitting water at the pressure potentials indicated. Outcomes of statistical evaluations are presented in table S1. (B) Total porosity of soil blocks (mean ± SE across block pairs). Statistical evaluations are summarized in tables S2 and S3. Horizontal offsets have been added to the points in (A) to reduce overlap.

  • Fig. 3 Soil water retention properties.

    (A) Water retention curves from interpolated data (mean ± SE across four samples per treatment group). Insets show the sizes of predominant effects as the difference in water content (Δθv) between (B) upland and lowland landscape positions and (C) irrigated and control water regimes, each calculated from the means in (A). Statistical evaluations are summarized in table S4.

  • Fig. 4 CWM root diameter through the course of the ITE.

    Points depict means (±SE) across all plots within water regimes (n = 5 per regime in the first 2 years of the experiment but n = 12 subsequently). Statistical evaluations are summarized in table S5.

  • Fig. 5 Additional soil properties.

    (A) Size distribution of aggregates and fine particles in Konza Prairie soil (means of data aggregated to the plot level). (B) Soil carbon and nitrogen content (mean ± SE across triplicate samples in each of eight plots). (C) Estimated distribution of soil crack widths through eight growing seasons (bootstrapped mean ± SE). Statistical evaluations for (A) and (B) are summarized in tables S6 and S3, respectively.

  • Table 1 Cation concentrations and the EDP (mean ± SE) of soils from the ITE.

    Water regimeLandscape positionNa
    (cmolc kg−1)
    K
    (cmolc kg−1)
    Ca
    (cmolc kg−1)
    Mg
    (cmolc kg−1)
    EDP (%)
    ControlLowland0.19 ± 0.021.27 ± 0.0826.24 ± 1.165.80 ± 0.453.50 ± 0.18
    ControlUpland0.18 ± 0.031.35 ± 0.1019.92 ± 0.406.97 ± 0.223.72 ± 0.14
    IrrigatedLowland0.30 ± 0.051.26 ± 0.0826.23 ± 0.756.26 ± 0.383.88 ± 0.22
    IrrigatedUpland0.24 ± 0.041.52 ± 0.0623.12 ± 0.436.93 ± 0.364.21 ± 0.22

Supplementary Materials

  • Supplementary material for this article is available at http://advances.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/full/5/9/eaau6635/DC1

    Fig. S1. Aboveground net primary productivity.

    Fig. S2. Metrics of cation dispersive capacity.

    Fig. S3. Relationship between soil crack widths and water content.

    Table S1. Plant community composition.

    Table S2. Statistical modeling summary for infiltration rate.

    Table S3. Statistical modeling summary for various soil properties.

    Table S4. Statistical modeling summary for water retention.

    Table S5. Statistical modeling summary for root diameter.

    Table S6. Statistical modeling summary for soil aggregates and particles.

    Table S7. Statistical modeling summary for aggregate stability.

    Table S8. Aggregate stability.

  • Supplementary Materials

    This PDF file includes:

    • Fig. S1. Aboveground net primary productivity.
    • Fig. S2. Metrics of cation dispersive capacity.
    • Fig. S3. Relationship between soil crack widths and water content.
    • Table S1. Plant community composition.
    • Table S2. Statistical modeling summary for infiltration rate.
    • Table S3. Statistical modeling summary for various soil properties.
    • Table S4. Statistical modeling summary for water retention.
    • Table S5. Statistical modeling summary for root diameter.
    • Table S6. Statistical modeling summary for soil aggregates and particles.
    • Table S7. Statistical modeling summary for aggregate stability.
    • Table S8. Aggregate stability.

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