Under-expanded supersonic CO2 freezing jets during champagne cork popping

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Science Advances  20 Sep 2019:
Vol. 5, no. 9, eaav5528
DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.aav5528


During champagne cork popping, the CO2/H2O gas mixture initially under pressure in the bottleneck freely expands into ambient air and experiences adiabatic cooling. A comparison between the condensation phenomena accompanying cork popping from bottles stored at 20° and 30°C was made. The initial headspace-to-ambient-pressure ratio much exceeded the critical ratio needed for the gas mixture to reach Mach 1, thus forming under-expanded supersonic CO2 freezing jets expelled from the throat of the bottlenecks. It was emphasized that, after adiabatic cooling and with a saturation ratio for gas-phase CO2 about twice higher for the bottles stored at 30°C, dry ice CO2 clusters grow bigger and reach the critical size needed to achieve the Mie scattering of light. Moreover, during the very first millisecond following cork popping, evanescent normal shock waves (or Mach disks) were unveiled in the jets, until the reservoir-to-ambient-pressure ratio goes below a critical ratio.

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