Research ArticleCHEMICAL PHYSICS

Under-expanded supersonic CO2 freezing jets during champagne cork popping

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Science Advances  20 Sep 2019:
Vol. 5, no. 9, eaav5528
DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.aav5528
  • Fig. 1 High-speed video imaging of CO2 freezing jets formed during champagne cork popping.

    Time sequences showing the freezing jet expelled from the throat of a bottleneck for a bottle stored at 20°C (A) as compared with that expelled from a bottle stored at 30°C (B). The time elapsed after cork popping appears in each panel (in microseconds).

  • Fig. 2 Partial pressures (in bar) of both gas-phase CO2 and water vapor found in the headspace of a corked bottle in equilibrium with the liquid phase, as a function of the bottle’s temperature (in °C).

  • Fig. 3 Evidence for evenly spaced Mach disks in the supersonic exhausts of a pair of U.S. Air Force F-15E Strike Eagles flying over northern Iraq (credit: U.S. Air Force/Senior Airman Matthew Bruch).

  • Fig. 4 Details of the freezing jet expelled from the bottleneck of a bottle stored at 20°C.

    A Mach disk shock normal to the flow appears in (A), about 580 μs after cork popping (white arrow). The standoff distance L of the Mach disk to the throat of the bottleneck then progressively increases from (A) to (D). It seems to slightly decrease in (E) before the Mach disk finally vanishes in (F) about 1 ms after cork popping. The time elapsed after cork popping appears in each panel (in microseconds).

  • Fig. 5 Standoff distances of the Mach disk to the throat of the bottleneck as a function of the time elapsed since cork popping for the bottles stored at 20° (blue diamond) and 30°C (red diamond).

    The panel close to each experimental dot refers to the corresponding panel in Fig. 1.

  • Table 1 Parameters of the CO2/H2O gas mixture found in the bottlenecks of the bottles stored at 20° and 30°C before cork popping and after adiabatic expansion.

    Storage temperature
    of bottles (in K)
    293303
    Pressure of gas-phase CO2 in the
    sealed bottle, PCBCO2 (in bar)
    7.510.2
    Pressure of water vapor in
    the sealed bottle, PCBH2O (in bar)
    0.02030.0368
    Temperature reached by the gas
    mixture in the bottleneck after
    adiabatic expansion, Tf (in K)
    183.9177.1
    Pressure of gas-phase CO2 in the
    bottleneck after adiabatic
    expansion, PvapCO2 (in bar)
    11
    Pressure of water vapor in the
    bottleneck after adiabatic
    expansion, PvapH2O (in bar)
    0.00270.0036
    Saturated vapor pressure of
    gas-phase CO2 after adiabatic
    expansion, PsatCO2 (in bar)
    0.390.21
    Saturated vapor pressure of ice
    water after adiabatic expansion,
    PsatH2O (in Pa)
    0.0110.003
    Saturation ratio of gas-phase
    CO2 after adiabatic
    expansion, SCO2
    2.534.84
    Saturation ratio of water
    vapor after adiabatic
    expansion, SH2O
    ≈23,800≈113,800

Supplementary Materials

  • Supplementary material for this article is available at http://advances.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/full/5/9/eaav5528/DC1

    Table S1. Parameters of the CO2/H2O gas mixture after adiabatic expansion.

    Fig. S1. Numerical simulations of the light scattering ratio.

    Fig. S2. Picture of PMCs.

    Fig. S3. Location of the Mach disk shock normalized by the diameter of the bottleneck.

    Fig. S4. Mach disks formed in the jet exhausting from the bottleneck of a plastic bottle.

    Movie S1. High-speed video showing the cork popping process from a bottle stored at 20°C.

    Reference (48)

  • Supplementary Materials

    The PDF file includes:

    • Table S1. Parameters of the CO2/H2O gas mixture after adiabatic expansion.
    • Fig. S1. Numerical simulations of the light scattering ratio.
    • Fig. S2. Picture of PMCs.
    • Fig. S3. Location of the Mach disk shock normalized by the diameter of the bottleneck.
    • Fig. S4. Mach disks formed in the jet exhausting from the bottleneck of a plastic bottle.
    • Legend for movie S1
    • Reference (48)

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    Other Supplementary Material for this manuscript includes the following:

    • Movie S1 (.avi format). High-speed video showing the cork popping process from a bottle stored at 20°C.

    Files in this Data Supplement:

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