Research ArticleAPPLIED SCIENCES AND ENGINEERING

The Temple Scroll: Reconstructing an ancient manufacturing practice

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Science Advances  06 Sep 2019:
Vol. 5, no. 9, eaaw7494
DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.aaw7494
  • Fig. 1 Light microscopy of the TS, showing its layered structure from the macroscale to the microscale.

    (A) Photographs of the TS showing damage to the upper part of the scroll (left). The reverse side of the preserved section (right) shows the follicle pattern of the hairs removed from the skin, which indicated that the text is written on the flesh side of the treated skin (13). [(A): Courtesy of the Estate of Yigael Yadin.] (B) Column 54 of the unrolled TS (29). The enlarged inclusion (inset) shows that some parts of the bright, text-carrying inorganic layer have been detached. [(B): Photo credit: The Israel Museum, Jerusalem.] (C) Fragment of TS showing inorganic layer on text side (left) and reverse side (right). The organic layer has partially detached, revealing the inner surface of the inorganic layer. (D) The same fragment in light transmittance from the back differentiating the thinner lower part, where the detachment has occurred from the thicker upper part. (E) Enlarged optical micrograph of the boxed region in (C).

  • Fig. 2 Large-scale μXRF and EDS characterization of the text-containing side of the TS.

    (A) The text-containing surface of the TS (optical image, left) is extremely heterogeneous, as demonstrated in the large-area multielement EDS map (right). (B) Large-area μXRF elemental averages demonstrate clear compositional differences between the blue circled region, which largely encompasses the inorganic overlayer, and the red circled region, which includes both the mineral overlayer and the underlying collagenous base material. (C) μXRF elemental distribution maps of the 12 most evident relevant elements. (D) EDS elemental maps of the ROI area indicated on the multielement EDS map in (A). From these EDS measurements and those shown in the small Na, S, and Ca elemental maps [(B), inset] of cropped regions of (D), we observe some elemental clusters where the particles (denoted by the arrows) contain Na and S but very little Ca. Other Ca-containing particles without Na and/or S were also identified.

  • Fig. 3 Raman spectra for the composite materials of the TS.

    (A) FT-Raman spectra of two regions of the text side of a TS fragment. a.u., arbitrary units. (B) Confocal micro-Raman at 785-nm spectra of the TS composites. I: Collagen spectrum; collagen spectra inside the TS always contain a nitrate peak at 1043 cm−1. II: Sulfate spectrum of particles with Na, S, and Ca constituents. III: Unidentified particles distributed throughout the inorganic surface layer, which yielded very resonant Raman signals with 785-nm laser excitation. (C) Distribution map of the particles on the surface of the inorganic layer, which were resonant for Raman excitation at 785 nm.

  • Fig. 4 BS-SEM images, ternary diagrams, and phase maps for the text and reverse sides of the TS.

    (A) Ternary density plot showing Ca-Na-S ratios for a region of the text side, indicated by the box on the optical image (center, top). (B) BS-SEM image of a cracked region from the text-containing side of the TS, showing both the inorganic overlayer and the underlying collagenous material. (C) BS-SEM image of a region of the reverse side and (D) ternary diagram showing the corresponding distribution of Ca-Na-S ratios. Ternary diagrams and phase maps showing the distribution of clustered EDS data for (E and F) the text side and (G and H) the reverse side. Ternary diagrams showing the distribution of different Na-S-Ca ratios, colored as RGB combination of the colors at the axes for (I and J) the text side and (K and L) the reverse side.

  • Fig. 5 BS-SEM images, ternary density plots, and Na-S-Ca ratio distribution maps for a subregion of the reverse side of the TS and three additional scrolls obtained from the 4Q cave.

    Each panel contains the BS-SEM image of the measured regions (left). EDS phase maps were obtained by coloring each pixel according to the ratio of calcium to sodium to sulfur, as indicated by the colored ternary diagram at the bottom left of the figure (center) and ternary density plots, with the relative density of points indicated by the color bar at the bottom left-center of the figure (right).

Supplementary Materials

  • Supplementary material for this article is available at http://advances.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/full/5/9/eaaw7494/DC1

    Fig. S1. Schematic showing the stratigraphy of the TS fragment, 11QTa.

    Fig. S2. Raman (785 nm) spectra of TS inorganics and related sulfate salts.

    Fig. S3. Raman (785 nm) spectra showing the detected components of the R-4Q1 scroll and reference spectra for gypsum and thénardite.

  • Supplementary Materials

    This PDF file includes:

    • Fig. S1. Schematic showing the stratigraphy of the TS fragment, 11QTa.
    • Fig. S2. Raman (785 nm) spectra of TS inorganics and related sulfate salts.
    • Fig. S3. Raman (785 nm) spectra showing the detected components of the R-4Q1 scroll and reference spectra for gypsum and thénardite.

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