Research ArticlePSYCHOLOGY

Valuing time over money predicts happiness after a major life transition: A preregistered longitudinal study of graduating students

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Science Advances  18 Sep 2019:
Vol. 5, no. 9, eaax2615
DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.aax2615
  • Table 4A T1 ROM predicting T2 SWB with preregistered covariates (gender, parents’ education, and materialism).

    T1 ROM predicting T2 SWB with preregistered covariates (gender, parents’ education, and materialism)..

    βBSEP for predictorF for modelP for modelR
    ROM (1 = time-oriented)0.120.610.15<0.001
    Gender (1 = female)−0.05−0.260.160.093
    Parents’ education−0.01−0.010.040.783
    Materialism0.020.0040.0060.489
    F4,1230 = 5.29<0.0010.13
  • Table 4B T1 ROM predicting T2 SWB with other demographic covariates (gender, parents’ education, and age).

    T1 ROM predicting T2 SWB with other demographic covariates (gender, parents’ education, and age)..

    βBSEP for predictorF for modelP for modelR
    ROM (1 = time-oriented)0.110.600.180.001
    Gender (1 = female)−0.04−0.250.210.230
    Age0.030.020.030.381
    Parents’ education0.020.030.050.539
    F4,821 = 3.490.0080.13
  • Table 4C T1 ROM predicting T2 SWB with other demographic covariates (gender, parents’ education, and age) and materialism.

    T1 ROM predicting T2 SWB with other demographic covariates (gender, parents’ education, and age) and materialism..

    βBSEP for predictorF for modelP for modelR
    ROM (1 = time-oriented)0.110.560.190.003
    Gender (1 = female)−0.04−0.250.210.232
    Age0.030.020.030.454
    Parents’ education0.020.030.050.545
    Materialism−0.03−0.070.070.346
    F5,820 = 2.960.0120.13
  • Table 4D T1 ROM predicting T2 SWB with demographic covariates (gender and parents’ education), materialism, and T1 SWB.

    T1 ROM predicting T2 SWB with demographic covariates (gender and parents’ education), materialism, and T1 SWB..

    βBSEP for predictorF for modelP for modelR
    ROM (1 = time-oriented)0.070.390.150.009
    Gender (1 = female)−0.02−0.130.170.454
    Parents’ education0.0040.0060.040.882
    Materialism−0.005−0.0010.0050.854
    SWB T10.570.570.03<0.001
    F5,850 = 86.93<0.0010.58
  • Table 5A T1 ROM predicting T2 activity motivation with preregistered covariates (gender, parents’ education, and materialism).

    T1 ROM predicting T2 activity motivation with preregistered covariates (gender, parents’ education, and materialism)..

    βBSEP for predictorF for modelP for modelR
    ROM (1 = time-oriented)0.104.671.360.001
    Gender (1 = female)−0.04−1.841.470.210
    Parents’ education0.060.690.350.049
    Materialism0.040.070.050.183
    F4,1230 = 5.000.0010.13
  • Table 5B T1 ROM predicting T2 activity motivation with demographic covariates (gender, parents’ education, and age).

    T1 ROM predicting T2 activity motivation with demographic covariates (gender, parents’ education, and age)..

    βBSEP for predictorF for modelP for modelR
    ROM (1 = time-oriented)0.094.371.620.007
    Gender (1 = female)−0.03−1.471.850.428
    Age0.0090.060.220.799
    Parents’ education0.040.420.410.309
    F4,821 = 2.360.0520.11
  • Table 5C T1 ROM predicting T2 activity motivation with covariates (gender, parents’ education, and age) and materialism.

    T1 ROM predicting T2 activity motivation with covariates (gender, parents’ education, and age) and materialism..

    βBSEP for predictorF for modelP for modelR
    ROM (1 = time-oriented)0.083.921.680.020
    Gender (1 = female)−0.03−1.501.850.417
    Age0.0030.0200.2190.929
    Parents’ education0.040.410.410.322
    Materialism−0.04−0.640.640.315
    F5,820 = 2.050.0700.11
  • Table 5D T1 ROM predicting T2 activity motivation with covariates (gender, parents’ education, and age), materialism, and T1 SWB.

    T1 ROM predicting T2 activity motivation with covariates (gender, parents’ education, and age), materialism, and T1 SWB..

    βBSEP for predictorF for modelP for modelR
    ROM (1 = time-oriented)0.072.691.630.046
    Gender (1 = female)−0.02−1.191.790.507
    Parents’ education0.030.290.400.468
    Materialism−0.04−0.670.620.275
    SWB T10.262.220.30<0.001
    F6,818 = 11.09<0.0010.28

    Across analyses, we found little evidence that demographic variables predicted SWB. These findings are consistent with meta-analytic research documenting small, sometimes nonsignificant associations between demographic characteristics and SWB (36). Across analyses, we also found little evidence that materialism predicted SWB. These findings are consistent with recent research documenting small, sometimes nonsignificant associations between materialism and well-being (10, 12, 13).

    • Table 1 Demographic characteristics of respondents who completed T1 and T2.

      Demographic characteristics of respondents who completed T1 and T2..

      Variables
      Percent female T271.9%
      Mean, age T220.63 (SD = 4.15)
      Family SES4.03 (SD = 1.88); corresponds with
      “completed a master’s degree”
      Primary activity T2

      • Full-time employment (24.3%)

      • Part-time employment (23.0%)

      • Graduate or Professional School (12.8%)

      • No activities (5.2%)

      • Service trip (3.9%)

      • Travel or gap year (2.6%)

      • Unpaid internship (1.7%)

      • Other—Self-defined by participant (26.6%)

      Motivation for primary activity T267.51 (SD = 23.30)
    • Table 2 Correlation table of response delay between T1 and T2 surveys and key outcomes.

      Correlation table of response delay between T1 and T2 surveys and key outcomes.. Age correlation is based on smaller subsample of n = 823. +P ≤ 0.10, *P < 0.05, **P < 0.01, and ***P < 0.001.

      Correlation of response delay and
      each of the following variables
      1. T2 ROM (1 = time-oriented)−0.05
      2. T2 SWB0.01
      3. Activity motivation−0.03
      4. Age−0.09*
      5. Gender (1 = female)−0.17**
      6. Parents’ education0.03
      7. Materialism−0.04
    • Table 3 Correlation table of all variables examined at T1 and T2.

      Correlation table of all variables examined at T1 and T2.. +P ≤ 0.10, *P < 0.05, **P < 0.01, ***P < 0.001.

      123456789
      1. T1 time-oriented
      (1 = yes)
      2. T2 SWB0.12**
      3. T2 SWL (satisfaction
      with life)
      0.10**0.77***
      4. T2 positive affect0.06*0.79***0.59***
      5. T2 negative affect−0.06*−0.75***−0.47**−0.56***
      6. Activity motivation0.10**0.41***0.41***0.33***−0.28***
      7. Age0.050.040.040.05−0.040.02
      8. Gender (1 = female)−0.04−0.05−0.006−0.0030.11***−0.04−0.06+
      9. Parents’ education0.050.0030.01−0.02−0.020.06*0.02−0.02
      10. Materialism−0.06*0.010.040.010.020.04−0.13***−0.040.04

    Supplementary Materials

    • Supplementary material for this article is available at http://advances.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/full/5/9/eaax2615/DC1

      Section S1. Structural equation modeling

      Section S2. Attrition

      Fig. S1. Final model depicting the relationship between valuing time over money, materialism, and SWB.

      Table S1. T test results between people who completed the ROM measure at T1 and at T2 and those who completed the ROM measure only at T2.

    • Supplementary Materials

      This PDF file includes:

      • Section S1. Structural equation modeling
      • Section S2. Attrition
      • Fig. S1. Final model depicting the relationship between valuing time over money, materialism, and SWB.
      • Table S1. T test results between people who completed the ROM measure at T1 and at T2 and those who completed the ROM measure only at T2.

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