Research ArticleAGRICULTURE

Discontinuous spread of millet agriculture in eastern Asia and prehistoric population dynamics

See allHide authors and affiliations

Science Advances  25 Sep 2019:
Vol. 5, no. 9, eaax6225
DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.aax6225
  • Fig. 1 Spatiotemporal distribution of directly dated millet remains from central and eastern Asia.

    (A) Topographic map with the locations of directly 14C-dated foxtail and broomcorn millet remains (n = 184) contained in the compiled datasets (tables S1 and S2) organized into eight geographical regions (see Materials and Methods). (B) Longitudinal distribution of calibrated median millet ages.

  • Fig. 2 The modeled age ranges and medians for the appearance of millet in different regions of central and eastern Asia.

    Numbers in parentheses show modeled calibrated median ages BCE. The longitudinal position of a defined region represents the center of the longitudinal range of all dated millet remains contained in the respective dataset.

  • Fig. 3 Archaeological site numbers in northern China, longitudinal spread of millet in eastern Asia, and probability distribution of available millet datings.

    (A) Development of archaeological site numbers per 100 years in northern China (ca. 94°E to 131°E) between 8000 and 500 BCE. (B) Probability density distribution of direct millet radiocarbon datings located between 98°E and 133°E based on kernel density estimation (KDE) modeling using the KDE_Model approach implemented in OxCal v4.3.2. The dark gray silhouette is the sampled KDE estimated distribution. The blue line and lighter blue band show the mean ± 1σ for snapshots of the KDE distribution generated during the Markov chain Monte Carlo process. The light gray silhouette represents the stacked (summed) distribution of all datings plotted using the Sum function in OxCal v4.3.2 (see Materials and Methods).

  • Fig. 4 Archaeological site numbers and probability distribution of available millet datings for north-central and northeastern China.

    (A) Development of archaeological site numbers per 100 years in north-central China between 8000 and 500 BCE and KDE probability density distribution of direct millet radiocarbon datings (west of 115°E). (B) As in (A) for northeastern China (east of 115°E). Error bars and vertical black strokes in (A) indicate, respectively, the 95% probability range and median age of the estimated onset of wheat cultivation in the Middle and Upper Yellow River regions (18). See caption of Fig. 3 for further details.

Supplementary Materials

  • Supplementary material for this article is available at http://advances.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/full/5/9/eaax6225/DC1

    Fig. S1. Bayesian model structure and OxCal coding.

    Fig. S2. OxCal modeling results.

    Table S1. Available 14C dates directly derived from remains of domesticated millet extracted from the literature.

    Table S2. Newly obtained 14C dates directly derived from remains of domesticated millet from prehistoric cultural layers in the Khanka-Ussuri region and the Chinese province of Shandong.

  • Supplementary Materials

    The PDF file includes:

    • Fig. S1. Bayesian model structure and OxCal coding.
    • Fig. S2. OxCal modeling results.

    Download PDF

    Other Supplementary Material for this manuscript includes the following:

    • Table S1 (Microsoft Excel format). Available 14C dates directly derived from remains of domesticated millet extracted from the literature.
    • Table S2 (Microsoft Excel format). Newly obtained 14C dates directly derived from remains of domesticated millet from prehistoric cultural layers in the Khanka-Ussuri region and the Chinese province of Shandong.

    Files in this Data Supplement:

Stay Connected to Science Advances

Navigate This Article