Research ArticlePALEONTOLOGY

Mouthpart homologies and life habits of Mesozoic long-proboscid scorpionflies

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Science Advances  04 Mar 2020:
Vol. 6, no. 10, eaay1259
DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.aay1259
  • Fig. 1 Aneuretopsychidae from Late Cretaceous Burmese amber.

    (A) Burmopsyche bella gen. et sp. nov.; holotype, NIGP166158a (left); paratype, NIGP166158b (right). (B and C) Burmopsyche bella gen. et sp. nov.; holotype, NIGP166158a. (B) Habitus in lateral view. (C) Head and proboscis, enlarged from the red template in (B). (D to F) Burmopsyche bella gen. et sp. nov.; paratype, NIGP166158b. (D) Habitus in lateral view. (E) Head and proboscis, enlarged from the red template in (D). (F) Genitalia, enlarged from the green template in (D). (G to J) Burmopsyche bella gen. et sp. nov.; paratype, NIGP166159. (G) Habitus in dorsal view. (H) Line drawing of (G). (I) Proboscis. (J) Genitalia, enlarged from the green template in (G). (K) Reconstruction of mouthparts of Aneuretopsychidae (note the opisthognathous orientation of mouthparts). (L to P) Burmopsyche xiai sp. nov.; holotype, NIGP171685. (L) Genitalia, enlarged from the green template in (O). (M) Habitus in right lateral view. (N) Proboscis, enlarged from the red template in (M). (O) Habitus in left lateral view. (P) Proboscis, enlarged from the red template in (O). An, antennae; Ce1, cercus segment 1; Ce2, cercus segment 2; Fc, food channel; Ga, galea; Hy, hypopharynx; Mxp, maxillary palp. Scale bars, 2 mm (A, B, D, M, and O), 1 mm (G and H), 0.5 mm (C, E, and P), and 0.2 mm (F, I, J, L, and N). Photo credit: B.W., Nanjing Institute of Geology and Palaeontology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  • Fig. 2 Wing venation of Aneuretopsychidae from Late Cretaceous Burmese amber.

    (A) Burmopsyche bella gen. et sp. nov.; holotype, NIGP166158a. (B) Burmopsyche xiai sp. nov.; holotype, NIGP171685. (C) Burmopsyche bella gen. et sp. nov.; paratype, NIGP166158b; forewing. (D) Burmopsyche bella gen. et sp. nov.; paratype, NIGP166159; forewing. Scale bars, 1 mm.

  • Fig. 3 Evolutionary history of Mesopsychoidea and related groups based on the parsimony analyses.

    Thick lines indicate the known extent of the fossil record. Branches representing Mesopsychoidea are shown in red (see the Supplementary Materials for details of the phylogenetic analyses).

Supplementary Materials

  • Supplementary material for this article is available at http://advances.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/full/6/10/eaay1259/DC1

    Supplementary Materials and Methods

    Fig. S1. Burmopsyche sp., BA18002 from Late Cretaceous Burmese amber.

    Fig. S2. Proboscis of Aneuretopsychidae from Late Cretaceous Burmese amber.

    Fig. S3. Majority rule consensus heuristic cladogram of mecopteran relationships (with cut at 50%) based on 38 fossil and extant taxa and 54 discrete characters.

    Fig. S4. Majority rule consensus ratchet-based cladogram of mecopteran relationships (with cut at 50%) based on 38 fossil and extant taxa and 54 discrete characters.

    Fig. S5. Maximum clade credibility tree of mecopteran relationships based on 38 fossil and extant taxa and 54 discrete characters, using a Bayesian Mkv+Γ model.

    Data file S1. List of characters for phylogenetic analysis.

    Data file S2. Data matrix for phylogenetic analysis.

  • Supplementary Materials

    The PDF file includes:

    • Supplementary Materials and Methods
    • Fig. S1. Burmopsyche sp., BA18002 from Late Cretaceous Burmese amber.
    • Fig. S2. Proboscis of Aneuretopsychidae from Late Cretaceous Burmese amber.
    • Fig. S3. Majority rule consensus heuristic cladogram of mecopteran relationships (with cut at 50%) based on 38 fossil and extant taxa and 54 discrete characters.
    • Fig. S4. Majority rule consensus ratchet-based cladogram of mecopteran relationships (with cut at 50%) based on 38 fossil and extant taxa and 54 discrete characters.
    • Fig. S5. Maximum clade credibility tree of mecopteran relationships based on 38 fossil and extant taxa and 54 discrete characters, using a Bayesian Mkv+Γ model.

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    Other Supplementary Material for this manuscript includes the following:

    • Data file S1 (Microsoft Excel format). List of characters for phylogenetic analysis.
    • Data file S2 (Microsoft Excel format). Data matrix for phylogenetic analysis.

    Files in this Data Supplement:

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