Research ArticleECOLOGY

Nitrogen addition increased CO2 uptake more than non-CO2 greenhouse gases emissions in a Moso bamboo forest

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Science Advances  18 Mar 2020:
Vol. 6, no. 12, eaaw5790
DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.aaw5790
  • Fig. 1 Moso bamboo forest biomass carbon.

    The aboveground and belowground biomass carbon (A) and carbon storage of 0-, 2-, and 4-year-old Moso bamboos (B) in uneven aged Moso bamboo forests under N addition treatment.

  • Fig. 2 Soil carbon storage and change at different soil depths under N addition treatment in Moso bamboo forests.

  • Fig. 3 Responses of Moso bamboo forest to N addition gradient.

    NRE, the response per unit N addition, is indicated by the slopes in the straight lines. ΔNRE is the difference in NRE between different N levels, indicating the difference between the slopes. Under N limited conditions, the indices increase linearly with excess N; thus, NRE is highest and constant with changing N input, while ΔNRE equals 0. Under high N enrichment, the indices show a slower than linear response; thus, NRE decreases with N, while ΔNRE is smaller than 0. The dash lines indicate the N saturation threshold for these indices nonlinearity.

  • Fig. 4 The carbon benefits of per unit N addition in Moso bamboo forest ecosystem.

    The responses of the ecosystem carbon process to per unit nitrogen addition when nitrogen addition was not more than (A) 30 kg N ha−1 year−1 and (B) 60 kg N ha−1 year−1. Solid lines indicate positive responses, and dashed lines indicate negative responses. ΔBC, woody biomass carbon increment. (Photo credit: Quan Li, Zhejiang A&F University).

  • Table 1 Annual change in biomass carbon and soil carbon, global warming potential (GWP) of annual soil N2O and CH4 emission, and annual net change in ecosystem carbon (Δ, megagrams of Ceq hectare−1year−1) (means ± SD; n = 3).

    Different lowercase letters indicate significant differences among N addition rates for the same variable (P < 0.05).

    TreatmentΔWoody biomass CΔSoil CNEP CGWPΔEcosystem COffset rate
    (%)
    AbovegroundBelowgroundSubtotalN2OCH4Subtotal
    Control4.17 ± 0.18c3.11 ± 0.29c7.28 ± 0.46c−0.51 ± 0.32b6.77 ± 0.36c0.61 ± 0.10b−0.050 ± 0.007a0.56 ± 0.09b6.20 ± 0.28c8.32 ± 0.99
    N305.46 ± 0.15ab4.34 ± 0.28ab9.80 ± 0.43ab−1.37 ± 0.12a8.43 ± 0.54ab0.81 ± 0.10a−0.045 ± 0.006ab0.77 ± 0.10a7.66 ± 0.64ab9.17 ± 1.78
    N605.76 ± 0.05a4.33 ± 0.15a10.09 ± 0.18a−1.29 ± 0.08a8.80 ± 0.21a0.83 ± 0.10a−0.035 ± 0.006b0.79 ± 0.10a8.01 ± 0.11a8.97 ± 0.91
    N905.08 ± 0.13b4.02 ± 0.22b9.10 ± 0.35b−1.09 ± 0.19a8.01 ± 0.28b0.73 ± 0.09ab−0.035 ± 0.006b0.70 ± 0.08ab7.31 ± 0.35b8.74 ± 1.29
  • Table 2 The response rate (kilograms of Ceq hectare−1year−1 per 1 kg N ha−1year−1) of woody biomass carbon, soil carbon, and GWP of soil N2O and CH4 emission to nitrogen addition from 2013 to 2016 (means ± SD; n = 3).

    ΔBC, woody biomass increment including above- and underground biomass. Different lowercase letters indicate significant differences among N addition rates for the same variable (P < 0.05).

    Aboveground
    biomass C
    ΔBC
    C
    SOCNEP
    C
    GWPEcosystem
    C
    N2OCH4Subtotal
    N3043.1 ± 7.6a84.1 ± 14.0a−28.7 ± 9.6a55.4 ± 12.5a6.5 ± 0.3a−0.17 ± 0.03b6.7 ± 0.3a48.7 ± 12.6a
    N6026.5 ± 3.5b46.8 ± 7.4b−13.0 ± 6.2b33.8 ± 2.6b3.5 ± 0.5b−0.25 ± 0.03a3.8 ± 0.6b30.0 ± 2.9b
    N9010.1 ± 2.4c19.1 ± 5.9c−5.5 ± 1.7b13.6 ± 4.9c1.2 ± 0.4c−0.18 ± 0.02b1.4 ± 0.4c12.2 ± 5.0c

Supplementary Materials

  • Supplementary material for this article is available at http://advances.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/full/6/12/eaaw5790/DC1

    Fig. S1. The stand characteristics of Moso bamboo forest.

    Fig. S2. The soil properties of Moso bamboo forest.

    Fig. S3. Monthly soil N2O emission rate in Moso bamboo forest from 2013 to 2016.

    Fig. S4. The global warming potential of non-CO2 greenhouse gas.

    Fig. S5. Direct and indirect effects of biotic and abiotic factors on N2O emission.

    Fig. S6. Soil CH4 uptake rate between 2013 and 2016 in Moso bamboo forest.

    Fig. S7. Direct and indirect effects of biotic and abiotic factors on CH4 uptake.

    Fig. S8. Soil microbe diversity in Moso bamboo forest.

    Fig. S9. Soil microbe amount in Moso bamboo forest.

    Fig. S10. The climate data for the study period.

  • Supplementary Materials

    This PDF file includes:

    • Fig. S1. The stand characteristics of Moso bamboo forest.
    • Fig. S2. The soil properties of Moso bamboo forest.
    • Fig. S3. Monthly soil N2O emission rate in Moso bamboo forest from 2013 to 2016.
    • Fig. S4. The global warming potential of non-CO2 greenhouse gas.
    • Fig. S5. Direct and indirect effects of biotic and abiotic factors on N2O emission.
    • Fig. S6. Soil CH4 uptake rate between 2013 and 2016 in Moso bamboo forest.
    • Fig. S7. Direct and indirect effects of biotic and abiotic factors on CH4 uptake.
    • Fig. S8. Soil microbe diversity in Moso bamboo forest.
    • Fig. S9. Soil microbe amount in Moso bamboo forest.
    • Fig. S10. The climate data for the study period.

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