Research ArticleECONOMICS

National monuments and economic growth in the American West

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Science Advances  18 Mar 2020:
Vol. 6, no. 12, eaay8523
DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.aay8523
  • Table 1 National monuments in Mountain West region designated between 1991 and 2014.

    Pompey’s Pillar National Monument, created in 2001, is excluded because it is only 51 acres. Craters of the Moon was created as a small site in 1962 but greatly expanded in 2000 and therefore is included. Visitor statistics are provided by BLM National Conservation Lands Division; Chimney Rock statistics are available in (40) and are for 2017; and NPS portions of Craters of the Moon are from annual visitation reports available from NPS Integrated Resource Management Applications (IRMA) Portal.

    National monumentStateAgencyYear createdAcresVisits, 2018
    Organ Mountains-Desert PeaksNew MexicoBLM2014496,330415,690
    Rio Grande del NorteNew MexicoBLM2013242,555199,664
    Chimney RockColoradoUSFS20124,72617,518
    Prehistoric TrackwaysNew MexicoBLM20095,28012,023
    Kasha-Katuwe Tent RocksNew MexicoBLM20014,148301,238
    Sonoran DesertArizonaBLM2001486,14928,064
    Upper Missouri River BreaksMontanaBLM2001377,34638,290
    Craters of the MoonIdahoNPS, BLM2000661,287267,660
    Vermillion CliffsArizonaBLM2000293,000196,841
    Canyon of the AncientsColoradoBLM2000164,000130,113
    Ironwood ForestArizonaBLM2000128,91732,580
    Agua FriaArizonaBLM200071,10043,729
    Grand Canyon-ParashantArizonaBLM20001,014,00037,827
    Grand Staircase-EscalanteUtahBLM19961,700,0001,157,915
  • Table 2 DID regression results: Monument designation impacts.

    (A and B) Robust standard errors, two-way clustered at state and year level, in parentheses. (A) Regression includes individual establishment fixed effects, state by year fixed effects, and industry by year fixed effects (using two-digit SIC codes). (B) Regressions include individual ZCTA fixed effects and state by year fixed effects. *P < 0.10; **P < 0.05; ***P < 0.01.

    A
    ln(jobsjsjt)
    Treatment—establishments in ZCTAs
    within 25 km of monument
    0.0039
    (0.003)
    No. of observations3,077,838
    No. of establishments369,758
    R20.922
    B
    ln(establishmentszjt)ln(jobszjt)ln(wagezjt)
    Treatment—ZCTAs within 25 km of monument0.099**
    (0.020)
    0.085**
    (0.025)
    −0.0014
    (0.018)
    No. of observations10,89210,89210,885
    No. of zip codes435435435
    R20.9740.9580.638
  • Table 3 DID regression results: Impact of monument designations on establishment and job growth rates in ZCTAs.

    Treated sample: ZCTAs within 25 km of monument, measured border to border. Control sample: ZCTAs bordering treatment ZCTAs. Births include new establishments and establishments that move from another ZCTA; deaths include establishments that cease operations and those that move to another ZCTA. Regressions are weighted by 1995 number of establishments or jobs and include state by year fixed effects and ZCTA fixed effects. Robust standard errors, two-way clustered at the state and year level, in parentheses. *P < 0.10; **P < 0.05; ***P < 0.01.

    EstablishmentsJobs
    Net growth0.0092***
    (0.0013)
    −0.0050
    (0.0172)
    Births−0.0006
    (0.0030)
    0.0099
    (0.0063)
    Deaths−0.0098**
    (0.0038)
    0.0100
    (0.0163)
    Expansions0.0028*
    (0.0012)
    Contractions0.0076
    (0.0044)
    Net extensive−0.0001
    (0.0124)
    Net intensive−0.0048
    (0.0056)
    Job creation0.0127*
    (0.0061)
    Job destruction0.0176
    (0.0213)
    No. of observations10,45610,456
    No. of zip codes435435
  • Table 4 Summary statistics for economic variables in treatment and control areas.

    Treated ZCTAs are within 25 km of monument, measured border to border. Control ZCTAs are adjacent to treated ZCTAs. SDs in parentheses.

    Treated ZCTAsControl ZCTAs
    Pretreatment mean (SD)Posttreatment mean (SD)Pretreatment mean (SD)Posttreatment mean (SD)
    Establishments245
    (615)
    476
    (1,106)
    169
    (363)
    250
    (618)
    Jobs2,193
    (5,491)
    3,275
    (7,867)
    1,345
    (2,957)
    1,587
    (3,977)
    Wage income (2015$)33,464
    (9,252)
    36,667
    (10,331)
    33,113
    (10,015)
    35,860
    (11,330)
    Share of jobs in agriculture0.140.120.180.15
    Share of jobs in manufacturing0.100.700.080.06
    Share of jobs in mining0.050.030.080.05
    Share of jobs in services0.510.540.490.52

Supplementary Materials

  • Supplementary material for this article is available at http://advances.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/full/6/12/eaay8523/DC1

    Section S1. Economic trends

    Section S2. Event study

    Section S3. Regressions with and without fixed effects

    Section S4. Robustness checks: Alternative control ZCTAs

    Section S5. Industry-level regressions

    Section S6. NETS data

    Section S7. ZCTA procedures and geocoding NETS

    Fig. S1. Growth in establishments and jobs for Mountain West region and total United States, 1990–2015.

    Fig. S2. Number of jobs and average wage income in non-metro counties in the U.S. Mountain West region, 1990–2015.

    Fig. S3. Job growth in non-metro counties in the U.S. Mountain West region, 1990–2015: Agriculture, forestry, mining, and service industries.

    Fig. S4. Event study estimates of the effect of monument designation on average number of establishments per ZCTA.

    Fig. S5. Event study estimates of the effect of monument designation on average number of jobs per ZCTA.

    Fig. S6. Event study estimates of the effect of monument designation on average number of jobs per establishment.

    Fig. S7. Maps of treatment and control ZCTAs in robustness check, with 2015 establishments.

    Table S1. DID regression results with and without fixed effects: Monument designation impacts on jobs per establishment.

    Table S2. DID regression results with and without fixed effects: Monument designation impacts on establishments and jobs in ZCTAs.

    Table S3. DID regression results robustness check: Monument designation impacts on jobs per establishment.

    Table S4. DID regression results robustness check: Monument designation impacts on total establishments and jobs in ZCTAs.

    Table S5. Industry-level DID regression results: Monument designation impacts on total jobs in ZCTAs.

    References (4154)

  • Supplementary Materials

    This PDF file includes:

    • Section S1. Economic trends
    • Section S2. Event study
    • Section S3. Regressions with and without fixed effects
    • Section S4. Robustness checks: Alternative control ZCTAs
    • Section S5. Industry-level regressions
    • Section S6. NETS data
    • Section S7. ZCTA procedures and geocoding NETS
    • Fig. S1. Growth in establishments and jobs for Mountain West region and total United States, 1990–2015.
    • Fig. S2. Number of jobs and average wage income in non-metro counties in the U.S. Mountain West region, 1990–2015.
    • Fig. S3. Job growth in non-metro counties in the U.S. Mountain West region, 1990–2015: Agriculture, forestry, mining, and service industries.
    • Fig. S4. Event study estimates of the effect of monument designation on average number of establishments per ZCTA.
    • Fig. S5. Event study estimates of the effect of monument designation on average number of jobs per ZCTA.
    • Fig. S6. Event study estimates of the effect of monument designation on average number of jobs per establishment.
    • Fig. S7. Maps of treatment and control ZCTAs in robustness check, with 2015 establishments.
    • Table S1. DID regression results with and without fixed effects: Monument designation impacts on jobs per establishment.
    • Table S2. DID regression results with and without fixed effects: Monument designation impacts on establishments and jobs in ZCTAs.
    • Table S3. DID regression results robustness check: Monument designation impacts on jobs per establishment.
    • Table S4. DID regression results robustness check: Monument designation impacts on total establishments and jobs in ZCTAs.
    • Table S5. Industry-level DID regression results: Monument designation impacts on total jobs in ZCTAs.
    • References (4154)

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