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Three dimensions, two microscopes, one code: Automatic differentiation for x-ray nanotomography beyond the depth of focus limit

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Science Advances  27 Mar 2020:
Vol. 6, no. 13, eaay3700
DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.aay3700


Conventional tomographic reconstruction algorithms assume that one has obtained pure projection images, involving no within-specimen diffraction effects nor multiple scattering. Advances in x-ray nanotomography are leading toward the violation of these assumptions, by combining the high penetration power of x-rays, which enables thick specimens to be imaged, with improved spatial resolution that decreases the depth of focus of the imaging system. We describe a reconstruction method where multiple scattering and diffraction effects in thick samples are modeled by multislice propagation and the 3D object function is retrieved through iterative optimization. We show that the same proposed method works for both full-field microscopy and for coherent scanning techniques like ptychography. Our implementation uses the optimization toolbox and the automatic differentiation capability of the open-source deep learning package TensorFlow, demonstrating a straightforward way to solve optimization problems in computational imaging with flexibility and portability.

This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial license, which permits use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, so long as the resultant use is not for commercial advantage and provided the original work is properly cited.

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