Research ArticleEPIDEMIOLOGY

Metabolic maturation in the first 2 years of life in resource-constrained settings and its association with postnatal growth

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Science Advances  08 Apr 2020:
Vol. 6, no. 15, eaay5969
DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.aay5969
  • Fig. 1 Biochemical variation associated with aging.

    (A) urinary and (B) plasma metabolic profiles of infants from Peru (PE), Bangladesh (BG), and Tanzania (TZ). The heat map presents the correlation coefficient (r) obtained from PLS models: Blue colors indicate a negative association with age, and reds represent metabolic shifts positively associated with infant aging. (C) Mean effect size of age-discriminatory urinary metabolites on the PA based on children with healthy growth trajectories. The effect size is depicted as the estimated change in PA for each SD change in a metabolite concentration. Color indicates cohort site, and the size of the symbols indicates the percentage PA variance explained.

  • Fig. 2 Time-dependent variation in the eight urinary metabolites used to calculate the PA of the study children.

    Relative concentrations of metabolites were obtained by measuring the area under selected spectral regions corresponding to betaine, DMG, citrate, succinate, hippurate, PAG, 4-CS, and creatine. Shaded area represents 95% CI.

  • Fig. 3 PAZ of growth-constrained and healthy infants relative to their chronological age across the three sites.

    The PAZ score of healthy and growth-constrained infants from each site was calculated from eight age-discriminatory urinary metabolites. Significant differences were observed between healthy and growth-constrained children at all sampling points in all cohorts. Mann-Whitney U test, *P < 0.01, **P < 0.001, and ***P < 0.0001 (Healthy Peru: N3 months = 21, N6 months = 19, N9 months = 20, N15 months = 20, N24 months = 18; Growth constrained Peru: N3 months = 220, N6 months = 214, N9 months = 197, N15 months = 183, N24 months = 141; Healthy Bangladesh: N3 months = 25, N6 months = 27, N9 months = 24, N15 months = 26; Growth constrained Bangladesh: N3 months = 196, N6 months = 197, N9 months = 181, N15 months = 184; Healthy Tanzania: N6 months = 11, N15 months = 7, N24 months = 7; Growth constrained Tanzania: N6 months = 209, N15 months = 129, N24 months = 122).

  • Fig. 4 Mean effect of each additional month of the PAZ on the LAZ 1 to 6 months after the urine sample, adjusting for LAZ at the time of the PAZ estimate and site.

Supplementary Materials

  • Supplementary Materials

    Metabolic maturation in the first 2 years of life in resource-constrained settings and its association with postnatal growths

    N. Giallourou, F. Fardus-Reid, G. Panic, K. Veselkov, B. J. J. McCormick, M. P. Olortegui, T. Ahmed, E. Mduma, P. P. Yori, M. Mahfuz, E. Svensen, M. M. M. Ahmed, J. M. Colston, M. N. Kosek, J. R. Swann

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