Research ArticleAPPLIED PHYSICS

A general approach for hysteresis-free, operationally stable metal halide perovskite field-effect transistors

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Science Advances  10 Apr 2020:
Vol. 6, no. 15, eaaz4948
DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.aaz4948
  • Fig. 1 Top-gate perovskite FETs fabricated by the antisolvent method—effect of channel length and cation composition.

    (A) Transfer characteristics measured at 100 K on top-gate, bottom-contact perovskite FET fabricated from MAPbI3 (red) and FAMAPbI3 (blue) with L = 100 μm, W = 1 mm. (B) Output characteristics measured on the same MAPbI3 FET depicting a decrease in hysteresis compared to devices fabricated with L = 20 μm, W = 1 mm (figs. S1A and S2A). Transfer characteristics measured at 300 K on perovskite FET (L = 100 μm, W = 1 mm) fabricated from (C) MAPbI3 (red) and FAMAPbI3 (blue). (D) Corresponding output characteristics measured on FAMAPbI3 perovskite FETs with L = 100 μm, W = 1 mm. (E) Enhancement in the ON current in the transfer characteristics for FETs (L = 100 μm, W = 1 mm) fabricated with RbCsFAMAPbI3; the corresponding output characteristics (F) exhibit low hysteresis, but there is still some suppression of the current at small drain voltages, indicating sizable contact resistance.

  • Fig. 2 Measurements of lateral ion migration as a function of composition.

    (A) Temporal variation of Ids, when a top-gate MAPbI3 transistor fabricated with different L is operated in transdiode mode Vd = Vg = 60 V. (B) Plot of τc with L2 indicating a typical time-of-flight behavior. (C) Similar temporal variation of the Ids measurement performed on top-gate FETs (L = 100 μm, W = 1 mm) fabricated with FAMAPbI3, CsFAMAPbI3, and RbCsFAMAPbI3 perovskite layers. Photoluminescence (PL) mapping performed on lateral channels of MAPbI3 devices fabricated with different channel lengths (D) 20 μm and (E) 100 μm before and after application of a source-drain voltage of 60 V for 180 s. (F) Line profile of the PL along the channel in MAPbI3 devices with different channel length. Lateral PL mapping measured on (G) RbCsFAMAPbI3, MAPbI3, methyl acetate (Lewis base)–treated MAPbI3 devices fabricated with L = 40 μm. (H) Corresponding PL profiles obtained from the lateral cross section of the different materials in (G) for a channel length of 40 μm. Scale bars, 20 μm (D and E) and 40 μm (G). a.u., arbitrary units.

  • Fig. 3 Spectroscopic characterization of defect states.

    (A) Derivative ESR spectra data (scatter) and best fits (line) measurement at 40 K performed on different perovskite samples. Representative THz absorption spectra measured on a bottom contact bottom gate transistor (L = 80 μm, W = 19.5 cm) fabricated using (B) MAPbI3 (C) RbCsFAMAPbI3, perovskite under different biasing conditions illustrating the broadening of the phonon mode. (D) Plot of the bias induced broadening of the first phonon peak around 1 THz in different perovskite materials. Bias-induced broadening is estimated from the difference in the FWHM for THz absorption spectra measured at Vd = Vg = 0V and Vd = Vg = 60V after a Gaussian fit.

  • Fig. 4 Enhancement of MAPbI3 transistor performance with positive azeotrope, Lewis base solvent treatments.

    Variation in the transfer characteristics of MAPbI3 perovskite FETs (L = 100 μm, W = 1 mm) (A) when exposed to a CoCl2 desiccant layer. Also shown are treatments with a different class of orthogonal solvents: (B) Lewis bases (ethyl acetate, methyl acetate, and diethyl ether) that also form a low boiling azeotropic mixture with water and (C) Lewis bases (pyridine and acetic acid) that do not form a low boiling azeotropic mixture with water. (D) Shift in the XRD peak corresponding to (110) depicting the increase in lattice size upon treatment of MAPbI3 films with methyl acetate solvent. Diethyl ether was avoided because of its low boiling point.

  • Fig. 5 Performance of optimized p-type and n-type, top-gate and bottom-gate multiple cation perovskite FETs.

    (A) Room temperature output and (B) transfer characteristics of bottom-contact, top-gate (BC-TG) FETs (L = 100 μm, W = 1 mm) fabricated from diethyl ether–treated RbCsFAMAPbI3. (C) Comparison of voltage stress stability measured on bottom-contact, top-gate (BC-TG) FETs fabricated from pristine (blue) and diethyl ether–treated (red) perovskite layers of RbCsFAMAPbI3 (top) and pristine (blue) as well as 1,3,5-tribromobenzene–treated (blue) perovskite layer of FAMAPbBr3 (bottom). (D) Transfer characteristics depicting optimized p-type bottom-contact, top-gate perovskite transistor (BC-TG) FETs (L = 100 μm, W = 1 mm) fabricated from 1,3,5-tribromobenzene solvent–treated FAMAPbBr3 perovskite layer. (E) Room temperature transfer characteristics measured on bottom-contact, bottom-gate (BC-BG) RbCsFAMAPbI3-based perovskite FETs (L = 100 μm, W = 1 mm) fabricated on ionic liquid [BMIM]+ [BF4]–treated SiO2 interface (black) and pristine SiO2 interface (red). (F) Bottom-contact, top-gate (BC-TG) flexible perovskite FETs (L = 100 μm, W = 1 mm) fabricated with diethyl ether–treated RbCsFAMAPbI3. Photo credit: Satyaprasad P. Senanayak, University of Cambridge, UK.

Supplementary Materials

  • Supplementary Materials

    A general approach for hysteresis-free, operationally stable metal halide perovskite field-effect transistors

    Satyaprasad P. Senanayak, Mojtaba Abdi-Jalebi, Varun S. Kamboj, Remington Carey, Ravichandran Shivanna, Tian Tian, Guillaume Schweicher, Junzhan Wang, Nadja Giesbrecht, Daniele Di Nuzzo, Harvey E. Beere, Pablo Docampo, David A. Ritchie, David Fairen-Jimenez, Richard H. Friend, Henning Sirringhaus

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    • Sections S1 to S14
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