Research ArticleECOLOGY

Functional diversity of marine megafauna in the Anthropocene

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Science Advances  17 Apr 2020:
Vol. 6, no. 16, eaay7650
DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.aay7650
  • Fig. 1 Composition of marine megafauna in the Anthropocene.

    (A) Structure of a three-dimensional functional space for the global megafauna. The percentages in the squares denote total inertia represented in the pair of axes of each plot, where PCoA1 independently represents 25%; PCoA2, 16%; and PCoA3, 9%. Colors denote taxonomic class, as provided by animal shapes: yellow, Actinopterygii (bony fish); brown, Aves (sea birds); purple, Bivalvia (giant clam); dark blue, Cephalopoda (squids and octopus); light blue, Elasmobranchii (sharks and rays); red, Mammalia (whales, seals, sea cows, and polar bear); green, Reptilia (sea turtles); gray, Sarcopterygii (coelacanth). (B) Proportional taxonomic richness of main taxonomic classes: bony fishes (yellow), sharks and rays (blue) and mammals (red), and all other groups (black). (C and D) Percentage of the space volume occupied using six dimensions, which altogether represent 71% of the total inertia. (C) Volume occupied by the main taxonomic classes and (D) by the different oceanic regions (ordered by volume). All plots show mean values across 1000 imputations. Error bars are not shown in bar plots as they are negligible (from 0.003 to 0.01).

  • Fig. 2 Forecasted changes in global diversity across extinction scenarios: IUCN 100 and IUCN AT.

    (A) Proportional changes in species richness. (B) Proportional changes in FRic (% volume of functional space). (C) Proportional changes in FUn (mean distance to five nearest neighbors). Boxplots show values across 1000 imputations. Violin plots show values obtained by randomized species loss. P values for all pairwise comparisons [empirical data (boxplots) versus randomized data (violin plots)] are <0.05; α = 0.05.

  • Fig. 3 Global diversity changes in main taxonomic groups.

    (A) Proportional changes in species richness. (B) Proportional changes in FRic (% volume of functional space). (C) Proportional changes in FUn (mean distance to five nearest neighbors). Boxplots show values across 1000 imputations. Violin plots show values obtained by randomized species loss. P values for all pairwise comparisons [empirical data (boxplots) versus randomized data (violin plots) and between groups (among boxplots)] are <0.05; α = 0.05. Colors denote taxonomic class, as provided by animal shapes: yellow, Actinopterygii (bony fish); red, Mammalia (whales, seals, sea cows, and polar bear); blue, Elasmobranchii (sharks and rays).

  • Fig. 4 Regional diversity changes.

    (A) Proportional changes in species richness. (B) Proportional changes in FRic (% volume of functional space). (C) Proportional changes in FUn (mean distance to five nearest neighbors). Boxplots show values across 1000 imputations. Violin plots show values obtained by randomized species loss. P values for all pairwise comparisons [empirical data (boxplots) versus randomized data (violin plots)] are <0.05; α = 0.05. Colors denote ocean as shown in map in the upper right corner.

  • Fig. 5 Species contribution to functional diversity and their current conservation status.

    Bars represent mean values for each species across all imputations. (A) FUn. Top species: Dugong (Dugong dugong), green sea turtle (Chelonia mydas) and giant clam (Tridacna gigas). (B) FSp. Top species: Crabeater seal (Lobodon carcinophaga), Antarctic fur seal (Arctocephalus gazelle), and Julien’s golden carp (Probarbus jullieni). (C) FUSE scores. Top species: Green sea turtle, Julien’s golden carp, dugong, sea otter (E. lutris), and giant clam. Bar colors represent species’ original, nonimputed IUCN status (see Materials and Methods).

Supplementary Materials

  • Supplementary Materials

    Functional diversity of marine megafauna in the Anthropocene

    C. Pimiento, F. Leprieur, D. Silvestro, J. S. Lefcheck, C. Albouy, D. B. Rasher, M. Davis, J.-C. Svenning, J. N. Griffin

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