Research ArticleIMMUNOLOGY

Commensal epitopes drive differentiation of colonic Tregs

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Science Advances  17 Apr 2020:
Vol. 6, no. 16, eaaz3186
DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.aaz3186

Abstract

The gut microbiome is the largest source of intrinsic non–self-antigens that are continuously sensed by the immune system but typically do not elicit lymphocyte responses. CD4+ T cells are critical to sustain uninterrupted tolerance to microbial antigens and to prevent intestinal inflammation. However, clinical interventions targeting commensal bacteria–specific CD4+ T cells are rare, because only a very limited number of commensal-derived epitopes have been identified. Here, we used a new approach to study epitopes and identify T cell receptors expressed by CD4+Foxp3+ (Treg) cells specific for commensal-derived antigens. Using this approach, we found that antigens from Akkermansia muciniphila reprogram naïve CD4+ T cells to the Treg lineage, expand preexisting microbe specific Tregs, and limit wasting disease in the CD4+ T cell transfer model of colitis. These data suggest that the administration of specific commensal epitopes may help to widen the repertoire of specific Tregs that control intestinal inflammation.

This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial license, which permits use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, so long as the resultant use is not for commercial advantage and provided the original work is properly cited.

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