Research ArticleOPTICS

Three-dimensional vectorial holography based on machine learning inverse design

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Science Advances  17 Apr 2020:
Vol. 6, no. 16, eaaz4261
DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.aaz4261


The three-dimensional (3D) vectorial nature of electromagnetic waves of light has not only played a fundamental role in science but also driven disruptive applications in optical display, microscopy, and manipulation. However, conventional optical holography can address only the amplitude and phase information of an optical beam, leaving the 3D vectorial feature of light completely inaccessible. We demonstrate 3D vectorial holography where an arbitrary 3D vectorial field distribution on a wavefront can be precisely reconstructed using the machine learning inverse design based on multilayer perceptron artificial neural networks. This 3D vectorial holography allows the lensless reconstruction of a 3D vectorial holographic image with an ultrawide viewing angle of 94° and a high diffraction efficiency of 78%, necessary for floating displays. The results provide an artificial intelligence–enabled holographic paradigm for harnessing the vectorial nature of light, enabling new machine learning strategies for holographic 3D vectorial fields multiplexing in display and encryption.

This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial license, which permits use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, so long as the resultant use is not for commercial advantage and provided the original work is properly cited.

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