Research ArticleIMMUNOLOGY

Linking indirect effects of cytomegalovirus in transplantation to modulation of monocyte innate immune function

See allHide authors and affiliations

Science Advances  22 Apr 2020:
Vol. 6, no. 17, eaax9856
DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.aax9856


Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in the immunocompromised host. In transplant recipients, a variety of clinically important “indirect effects” are attributed to immune modulation by CMV, including increased mortality from fungal disease, allograft dysfunction and rejection in solid organ transplantation, and graft-versus-host-disease in stem cell transplantation. Monocytes, key cellular targets of CMV, are permissive to primary, latent and reactivated CMV infection. Here, pairing unbiased bulk and single cell transcriptomics with functional analyses we demonstrate that human monocytes infected with CMV do not effectively phagocytose fungal pathogens, a functional deficit which occurs with decreased expression of fungal recognition receptors. Simultaneously, CMV-infected monocytes upregulate antiviral, pro-inflammatory chemokine, and inflammasome responses associated with allograft rejection and graft-versus-host disease. Our study demonstrates that CMV modulates both immunosuppressive and immunostimulatory monocyte phenotypes, explaining in part, its paradoxical “indirect effects” in transplantation. These data could provide innate immune targets for the stratification and treatment of CMV disease.

This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution license, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

View Full Text

Stay Connected to Science Advances