Research ArticleMATERIALS SCIENCE

Graphene reinforced carbon fibers

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Science Advances  24 Apr 2020:
Vol. 6, no. 17, eaaz4191
DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.aaz4191
  • Fig. 1 Illustration of the wet spinning process, microstructure, and mechanical properties of the PAN/graphene composite CFs.

    (A) Illustration of the fabrication process of PAN/graphene precursor fibers. DI, dionized. (B to G) SEM images of the carbonized PAN/graphene composite fibers with different weight percentage of graphene, (B) 0.00 wt %, (C) 0.01 wt %, (D) 0.025 wt %, (E) 0.05 wt %, (F) 0.075 wt %, and (G) 0.1 wt %. (H and I) Mechanical properties of the carbonized PAN/graphene CFs with different graphene concentration.

  • Fig. 2 Nanotomography measurement of PAN/graphene composite CFs.

    Images are shown for different levels for graphene content: (A) 0.00 wt %, (B) 0.025 wt %, (C) 0.075 wt %, and (D) 0.1 wt %. (E) Each panel shows two axial cross sections located at different positions on the fiber length. (F) 2D model of elliptical hole in infinite plate.

  • Fig. 3 TEM images and Raman spectra of the PAN/graphene composite CFs.

    (A) TEM images of the added graphene obtained from shear exfoliation. (B) HRTEM image of the graphene, with inset showing the corresponding FFT pattern. (C) TEM image of PAN/graphene (0.075 wt %) precursor fiber, with inset showing the FFT pattern of the selected area (red square). (D and E) TEM images of the carbonized PAN/graphene fiber (0.075 wt % graphene) at different magnifications. (F) Raman spectra of the carbonized PAN/graphene fibers with different concentrations of graphene. a.u., arbitrary unit. (G) The possible flow-induced graphene alignment mechanism of the PAN/graphene dope (33).

  • Fig. 4 Atomistic ReaxFF simulations of the initial stage of carbonization process for oxidized PAN and oxidized PAN/graphene precursors.

    Production of (A) N2, (B) H2, (C) H2O molecules. Formation of (D) 5-, (E) 6-, and (F) 7-membered carbon rings. (G) Carbon content of fibers at different simulation times for the oxidized PAN and oxidized PAN/graphene precursors. (H and I) Snapshots of the oxidized PAN/graphene taken during the carbonization process to show the formation of 5/6/7-membered carbon-only rings at the graphene edges. Carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, and hydrogen are represented black, blue, red, and white, respectively. Purple spheres represent the initial graphene structure. Dark lines and shadows in (A) to (F) are the average and SD over eight different samples, respectively. Insets (A to F) show simulation results for the last 100 ps.

  • Fig. 5 Nonreactive MD simulations of structural self-organization of PAN chains with and without the presence of a graphene sheet.

    Snapshots (A and B), ring orientation distributions (C to E), and HOF distributions (F) of PAN/graphene and PAN structures. In the snapshots of PAN/graphene and PAN structures, individual PAN chains are shown by lines joining carbon ring centers. For PAN/graphene structure, the horizontal gap in the middle of the system corresponds to the graphene sheet, which is not shown for visualization purposes. The ring centers are colored according to the cosine angles of ring normal vectors with respect to the vertical z axis. The color scheme is shown in (D) and (E).

Supplementary Materials

  • Supplementary Materials

    Graphene reinforced carbon fibers

    Zan Gao, Jiadeng Zhu, Siavash Rajabpour, Kaushik Joshi, Małgorzata Kowalik, Brendan Croom, Yosyp Schwab, Liwen Zhang, Clifton Bumgardner, Kenneth R. Brown, Diana Burden, James William Klett, Adri C. T. van Duin, Leonid V. Zhigilei, Xiaodong Li

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