Research ArticleANTHROPOLOGY

Early sociability fosters later exploratory tendency in wild immature orangutans

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Science Advances  08 Jan 2020:
Vol. 6, no. 2, eaaw2685
DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.aaw2685
  • Fig. 1 Exploratory tendency as a function of past sociability.

    Exploratory tendency (z-transformed hourly exploration rates, corrected for age) as a function of past experienced sociability.

  • Table 1 Effects on immature exploratory tendency (model selection approach).

    Model selection of individual factors using the likelihood ratio test significantly supported the inclusion of the factor past sociability as a predictor of exploration rate. Age was included as a nonlinear control variable and the individual as a random effect.

    FactorFactor typeEstimateSEConfidence intervals
    0.0250.975
    InterceptIntercept−0.010.06−0.130.11
    function(Age)Control1.010.050.921.09
    IndividualRandom
    Past sociabilityPredictor0.170.040.080.25
  • Table 2 Effects on immature exploratory tendency (full model).

    The analysis of the full model, containing all tested factors as predictor variables on exploration rate, as well as age as a nonlinear control variable and the individual as a random effect.

    FactorFactor typeEstimateSEConfidence intervalsP value (cf test)
    0.0250.975
    InterceptIntercept−0.310.33−0.790.230.348
    function(Age)Control1.010.070.911.13<0.001
    Fruit availabilityPredictor0.010.05−0.080.090.862
    Mothers dominancePredictor0.150.12−0.060.330.222
    Mothers agePredictor−0.020.11−0.200.140.828
    Current sociabilityPredictor−0.080.05−0.170.010.159
    Past sociabilityPredictor0.200.060.110.29<0.001
    Mother’s exploratory tendencyPredictor−0.100.07−0.200.010.130
    MatrilinePredictor*****
    IndividualRandom

    *Matriline was included as a categorical variable, whereby none of the contrasts showed a significant difference.

    Supplementary Materials

    • Supplementary material for this article is available at http://advances.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/full/6/2/eaaw2685/DC1

      Section S1. Details on the predictor variables

      Section S2. Details on the statistical analyses presented in the main manuscript

      Section S3. Alternative statistical approach

      Fig. S1. Exploration rates over age.

      Fig. S2. Exploratory tendency (number of exploration events per hour) as a function of age for Suaq and Tuanan.

      Table S1. Effects on immature exploratory tendency (full model).

      Table S2. Data used for all analyses in the main text and the Supplementary Materials.

      References (5356)

    • Supplementary Materials

      This PDF file includes:

      • Section S1. Details on the predictor variables
      • Section S2. Details on the statistical analyses presented in the main manuscript
      • Section S3. Alternative statistical approach
      • Fig. S1. Exploration rates over age.
      • Fig. S2. Exploratory tendency (number of exploration events per hour) as a function of age for Suaq and Tuanan.
      • Table S1. Effects on immature exploratory tendency (full model).
      • Table S2. Data used for all analyses in the main text and the Supplementary Materials.
      • References (5356)

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