Research ArticleAPPLIED SCIENCES AND ENGINEERING

Anisotropic structural color particles from colloidal phase separation

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Science Advances  10 Jan 2020:
Vol. 6, no. 2, eaay1438
DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.aay1438
  • Fig. 1 Schematic diagrams of the generation process and cardiomyocyte monitoring of the anisotropic Janus SCPs.

    (A) Generation process of the anisotropic Janus SCPs. (B) Preparation process of the anisotropic hydrogel SCPs. (C) Construction of cardiomyocyte monitoring platform by the anisotropic hydrogel SCPs.

  • Fig. 2 The phase separation phenomenon of GO and silica nanoparticles in a droplet during the heating process.

    (A to I) The optical images of a droplet at different time during the heating process.

  • Fig. 3 The SEM images of an anisotropic SCP.

    (A) Whole view of the anisotropic Janus SCP. (B and C) Surface and inner microstructures of the photonic section framed by the yellow dash line in (A). (D) Surface microstructure of the dark section framed by the red dash line in (A). Scale bars, 100 μm (A), 1 μm (B), and 2 μm (C and D).

  • Fig. 4 The optic and morphology characterization of the Janus SCPs.

    (A to C) Reflection microscope images of three kinds of anisotropic Janus SCPs. (D) Reflection optical images of common spherical SCPs (left) and Janus SCPs (right). (E) FWHM distributions of the SCPs shown in (D). (F) Normalized reflective peaks and reflection images of five different anisotropic Janus SCPs. (G) Comparison of movability of spherical SCPs and anisotropic Janus SCPs in the same microfluidic channel with flow. Scale bars, 300 μm (A to C), 500 μm (D), and 1 mm (G).

  • Fig. 5 The microstructures and photothermal responsiveness of NIPAM hydrogel Janus SCPs.

    (A) Schematic diagram of the responsiveness principle of photothermal responsive hydrogel Janus SCPs. (B) Reflection microscope images of hydrogel Janus SCPs. (C to E) SEM images of the inner microstructure of the photonic section of a hydrogel Janus SCP (C), the surface (D), and inner (E) microstructure of the dark section of a hydrogel Janus SCP. (F) Optical microscope images of the structural color variation process of a hydrogel Janus SCP during half photothermal response cycles (from t1 to t6). Scale bars, 200 μm (B and F) and 1 μm (C to E).

  • Fig. 6 The GelMA hydrogel Janus SCPs for cell culture and monitoring.

    (A) Schematic diagram of the construction of the visualized monitoring platform for cardiomyocytes on the hydrogel Janus SCPs. (B) Fluorescence images of the cardiomyocytes cultured on a hydrogel Janus SCP for (a) nuclei, (b) F-actin, (c) the merged field, and (d) the enlarged view of cells, respectively. (C) Optical microscope images of the structural color variation process of a hydrogel Janus SCP during half myocardial cycles (from t1 to t4). (D) Reflection spectra of the hydrogel Janus SCP in (C): The leftmost (blue) line corresponds to t4 and the rightmost (red) line corresponds to t1. (E) Relationship between the reflection shift values of the hydrogel Janus SCP and 20 beating cycles of the cardiomyocytes on the surface. (F) Relationship between the beating speed and the reflection peak shift values of the hydrogel Janus SCP treated with different concentrations of isoproterenol.

Supplementary Materials

  • Supplementary material for this article is available at http://advances.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/full/6/2/eaay1438/DC1

    The calculation of the size of the nanoparticles in the mix solution

    Fig. S1. The change of charge (zeta potential) of the mixed solution and sedimentation time of the silica nanoparticles.

    Fig. S2. Optical image and SEM image characterization of spherical particles and Janus SCPs.

    Fig. S3. The microstructure of the junction of the two domains and the effect of GO concentration on the ratio of the major axis and minor axis.

    Fig. S4. Relationships between the Janus SCP radius and the flow rate.

    Fig. S5. Relationships of the Janus SCP radius with the concentration of mixed GO.

    Fig. S6. Reflection microscope images of Janus SCPs.

    Fig. S7. The relationships between the spectra and GO concentration or observed angles.

    Fig. S8. The reflection microscope images and microstructure characterization of the orange Janus particles and the hybrid structure with pNIPAM.

    Fig. S9. Reflection microscope image characterization of the red and green Janus SCPs, the hybrid structure with pNIPAM, and the corresponding inverse opal pNIPAM Janus SCPs.

    Fig. S10. The optical microscope images of the structural color variation process of the hydrogel Janus SCPs during half photothermal response cycles.

    Fig. S11. The photothermal responsive capability of the pNIPAM hydrogel Janus SCPs under NIR light.

    Fig. S12. The results of the cardiomyocyte MTT assays.

    Fig. S13. Reflection microscope images and spectra characterization of the Janus SCPs, the hybrid structure with GelMA, and the inverse opal GelMA Janus SCPs.

    Fig. S14. The effect of various isoproterenol concentrations.

    Table S1. Zeta potential characterization of silica nanoparticle solution, GO solution, and silica nanoparticles/GO solution, respectively.

    Movie S1. The spherical SCPs in fluid.

    Movie S2. The Janus SCPs in fluid.

    Movie S3. The photothermal response process of a pNIPAM hydrogel Janus SCP.

    Movie S4. The cardiomyocytes beating derived color change of a GelMA hydrogel SCP.

  • Supplementary Materials

    The PDFset includes:

    • The calculation of the size of the nanoparticles in the mix solution
    • Fig. S1. The change of charge (zeta potential) of the mixed solution and sedimentation time of the silica nanoparticles.
    • Fig. S2. Optical image and SEM image characterization of spherical particles and Janus SCPs.
    • Fig. S3. The microstructure of the junction of the two domains and the effect of GO concentration on the ratio of the major axis and minor axis.
    • Fig. S4. Relationships between the Janus SCP radius and the flow rate.
    • Fig. S5. Relationships of the Janus SCP radius with the concentration of mixed GO.
    • Fig. S6. Reflection microscope images of Janus SCPs.
    • Fig. S7. The relationships between the spectra and GO concentration or observed angles.
    • Fig. S8. The reflection microscope images and microstructure characterization of the orange Janus particles and the hybrid structure with pNIPAM.
    • Fig. S9. Reflection microscope image characterization of the red and green Janus SCPs, the hybrid structure with pNIPAM, and the corresponding inverse opal pNIPAM Janus SCPs.
    • Fig. S10. The optical microscope images of the structural color variation process of the hydrogel Janus SCPs during half photothermal response cycles.
    • Fig. S11. The photothermal responsive capability of the pNIPAM hydrogel Janus SCPs under NIR light.
    • Fig. S12. The results of the cardiomyocyte MTT assays.
    • Fig. S13. Reflection microscope images and spectra characterization of the Janus SCPs, the hybrid structure with GelMA, and the inverse opal GelMA Janus SCPs.
    • Fig. S14. The effect of various isoproterenol concentrations.
    • Table S1. Zeta potential characterization of silica nanoparticle solution, GO solution, and silica nanoparticles/GO solution, respectively.
    • Legends for movies S1 to S4

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    Other Supplementary Material for this manuscript includes the following:

    • Movie S1 (.avi format). The spherical SCPs in fluid.
    • Movie S2 (.avi format). The Janus SCPs in fluid.
    • Movie S3 (.avi format). The photothermal response process of a pNIPAM hydrogel Janus SCP.
    • Movie S4 (.avi format). The cardiomyocytes beating derived color change of a GelMA hydrogel SCP.

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