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Supercooled liquid sulfur maintained in three-dimensional current collector for high-performance Li-S batteries

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Science Advances  22 May 2020:
Vol. 6, no. 21, eaay5098
DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.aay5098
  • Fig. 1 Supercooled liquid sulfur for Li-S batteries.

    (A) In situ optical observation of sulfur evolution processes. (B) Design of three-dimensional (3D) electrodes for high-performance Li-S batteries.

  • Fig. 2 Schematic of sulfur evolution and mechanism understanding by theoretical calculations.

    Schematic illustration of the sulfur species evolution on (A) Ni, (B) C, and (C) Al substrates during charging and discharging processes. Adsorption energy and configuration of S8 adsorbed on (D) graphene zigzag edge, (E) nickel (111) surface covered by one layer of oxygen, and (F) aluminum (111) surface covered by one layer of oxygen.

  • Fig. 3 In situ optical observation and electrochemical performance of the Ni foam and G/Ni foam electrodes in lithium polysulfide electrolyte.

    Optical images of (A) Ni foam. Optical images of Ni foam in lithium polysulfide electrolyte (B) at initial state, (C) after charging to 3.0 V, and (D) discharging to 1.5 V. (E) G/Ni foam. Optical images of G/Ni foam in lithium polysulfide electrolyte (F) at initial state, (G) after charging to 3.0 V, and (H) discharging to 1.5 V. Snapshots of the constant voltage charging process for Ni foam electrode at (I) 60 s, (J) 90 s, (K) 120 s, and (L) 150 s. Snapshots of the constant voltage charging process for G/Ni foam electrode at (M) 60 s, (N) 90 s, (O) 120 s, and (P) 150 s. (Q) Rate performance of the Ni foam and G/Ni foam electrodes at different current densities. (R) Charge/discharge voltage profiles of the Ni foam (dash line) and G/Ni foam (solid line) electrodes at 0.2, 1, and 3 C. (S) Cycling performance and Coulombic efficiency of the Ni foam and G/Ni foam electrodes at 0.2 C for 100 cycles.

  • Fig. 4 Li2S decomposition and lithium ion diffusion barriers on the surface of nickel and graphene.

    (A) Comparison of the Li2S decomposition and lithium ion diffusion barriers on the surface of nickel, graphene basal plane, and graphene edge. Energy profiles for the decomposition of Li2S cluster and lithium ion diffusion on the surface of (B) graphene edge, (C) graphene basal plane, and (D) nickel. Inset figures are top-view schematic representations of the corresponding decomposition and lithium ion diffusion pathways for graphene edge, graphene basal plane, and nickel. Here, green, yellow, gray, and beige balls symbolize lithium, sulfur, nickel, and carbon atoms, respectively.

  • Fig. 5 Morphology and electrochemical performance of lightweight nickel-coated melamine foam.

    Optical images of (A) melamine foam and (B) nickel-coated melamine foam. (C) SEM image of the nickel-coated melamine foam. (D) Optical images of nickel-coated melamine foam in lithium polysulfide electrolyte during charging and discharging. (E) Charge/discharge voltage profiles of the nickel-coated melamine foam electrode at 0.2C within a potential window of 1.5 to ∼2.8 V versus Li+/Li0. (F) Rate performance of the nickel-coated melamine foam electrode at different current densities. (G) Cycling performance and Coulombic efficiency of the nickel-coated melamine foam electrode at 0.5C for 200 cycles.

Supplementary Materials

  • Supplementary Materials

    Supercooled liquid sulfur maintained in three-dimensional current collector for high-performance Li-S batteries

    Guangmin Zhou, Ankun Yang, Guoping Gao, Xiaoyun Yu, Jinwei Xu, Chenwei Liu, Yusheng Ye, Allen Pei, Yecun Wu, Yucan Peng, Yanxi Li, Zheng Liang, Kai Liu, Lin-Wang Wang, Yi Cui

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