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Horizontal gene transfer rate is not the primary determinant of observed antibiotic resistance frequencies in Streptococcus pneumoniae

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Science Advances  20 May 2020:
Vol. 6, no. 21, eaaz6137
DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.aaz6137

Article Information

vol. 6 no. 21

Online ISSN: 
  • Received for publication September 24, 2019
  • Accepted for publication March 10, 2020
  • .

Author Information

  1. Sonja Lehtinen1,2,
  2. Claire Chewapreecha3,4,5,
  3. John Lees6,
  4. William P. Hanage7,
  5. Marc Lipsitch7,
  6. Nicholas J. Croucher7,
  7. Stephen D. Bentley3,
  8. Paul Turner8,9,
  9. Christophe Fraser1,* and
  10. Rafał J. Mostowy1,6,10
  1. 1Big Data Institute, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK.
  2. 2Institute of Integrative Biology, Department of Environmental Systems Science, ETH Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland.
  3. 3Wellcome Sanger Institute, Hinxton, UK.
  4. 4Mahidol-Oxford Tropical Medicine Research Unit, Bangkok, Thailand.
  5. 5Bioinformatics and Systems Biology Program, School of Bioresource and Technology, King Mongkut’s University of Technology Thonburi, Bangkok, Thailand.
  6. 6Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Imperial College London, London, UK.
  7. 7Center for Communicable Disease Dynamics, Department of Epidemiology, Harvard T. H. Chan School of Public Health, Harvard University, Boston, MA, USA.
  8. 8Cambodia Oxford Medical Research Unit, Angkor Hospital for Children, Siem Reap, Cambodia.
  9. 9Centre for Tropical Medicine and Global Health, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK.
  10. 10Malopolska Centre of Biotechnology, Jagiellonian University, Krakow, Poland.
  1. *Corresponding author. Email: christophe.fraser{at}


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