Research ArticleEVOLUTIONARY BIOLOGY

From asymmetrical to balanced genomic diversification during rediploidization: Subgenomic evolution in allotetraploid fish

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Science Advances  27 May 2020:
Vol. 6, no. 22, eaaz7677
DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.aaz7677

Abstract

A persistent enigma is the rarity of polyploidy in animals, compared to its prevalence in plants. Although animal polyploids are thought to experience deleterious genomic chaos during initial polyploidization and subsequent rediploidization processes, this hypothesis has not been tested. We provide an improved reference-quality de novo genome for allotetraploid goldfish whose origin dates to ~15 million years ago. Comprehensive analyses identify changes in subgenomic evolution from asymmetrical oscillation in goldfish and common carp to diverse stabilization and balanced gene expression during continuous rediploidization. The homoeologs are coexpressed in most pathways, and their expression dominance shifts temporally during embryogenesis. Homoeolog expression correlates negatively with alternation of DNA methylation. The results show that allotetraploid cyprinids have a unique strategy for balancing subgenomic stabilization and diversification. Rediploidization process in these fishes provides intriguing insights into genome evolution and function in allopolyploid vertebrates.

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