Research ArticleATMOSPHERIC SCIENCE

ITCZ shift and extratropical teleconnections drive ENSO response to volcanic eruptions

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Science Advances  03 Jun 2020:
Vol. 6, no. 23, eaaz5006
DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.aaz5006
  • Fig. 1 Schematic description of the experiments and the mechanisms affecting ENSO in our simulations.

    Schematic description of the experiments and representation of the potential impacts on ENSO of the ITCZ shift, ODT mechanisms, and extratropical teleconnections following volcanic eruptions.

  • Fig. 2 Changes in aerosol optical depth.

    Anomalies in aerosol optical depth (at 550 nm) for the summer (June to September) following the eruption for the TrNH (A and B), TrSH (C and D), and EqPAC (E and F) experiments relative to the no-volcano simulations.

  • Fig. 3 Niño3.4 index and its changes.

    (A) Niño3.4 index for the TrNH and TrSH volcano and no-volcano simulations. In (A), the triangle and the vertical red line highlight the onset of the eruption. (B) Niño3.4 index anomalies (volcano minus no-volcano experiments) for TrNH and TrSH cases. In (B), the anomalies are shown starting from the month of the eruption. The lines represent the ensemble mean, and the shadings represent the SE of the ensemble mean.

  • Fig. 4 Changes in surface temperature, wind, sea level pressure (SLP), and precipitation.

    Changes in surface temperature (°C, shadings), wind (m/s, arrows), SLP (hPa, contours) (A to D) and precipitation (mm/day) (E to H) in the first summer (June to September) following the TrNH (A, B, E, and F) and TrSH (C, D, G, and H) eruptions for each ensemble. Only temperature and precipitation values that are significantly different at the 5% level using a local (grid-point) t test are shaded. The contours follow the color bar intervals (solid for positive and dashed for negative anomalies; the zero line is omitted).

  • Fig. 5 Changes in surface temperature in EqPAC experiments.

    Surface temperature (°C) changes in the first and second summer (June to September (A, C, E, and F) and winter (December to February) (B, D, G, and H) following the EqPAC volcanic forcing for each ensemble. Only values that are significantly different at the 5% level using a local (grid-point) t test are shaded. The contours follow the color bar intervals (solid for positive and dashed for negative anomalies; the zero line is omitted).

  • Fig. 6 Pacific zonal mean temperature and zonal wind anomalies.

    Zonal mean atmospheric temperature (°C) (A to D) and zonal wind (m/s) (F to I) anomalies over the equatorial Pacific region (120°E to 90°W) in the summer (June to September) following the TrNH (A, B, F, and G) and TrSH (C, D, H, and I) eruptions for each ensemble. Bottom panels show the difference between El Niño and La Niña composite for temperature (E) and zonal wind (J). Only values that are significantly different at the 5% level using a local (grid-point) t test are shaded. The contours follow the color bar intervals (solid for positive and dashed for negative anomalies; the zero line is omitted).

Supplementary Materials

  • Supplementary Materials

    ITCZ shift and extratropical teleconnections drive ENSO response to volcanic eruptions

    Francesco S. R. Pausata, Davide Zanchettin, Christina Karamperidou, Rodrigo Caballero, David S. Battisti

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