Research ArticleANTHROPOLOGY

The life history of human foraging: Cross-cultural and individual variation

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Science Advances  24 Jun 2020:
Vol. 6, no. 26, eaax9070
DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.aax9070
  • Fig. 1 Distribution of study sites.

    For the key, see Table 1.

  • Fig. 2 Skill functions.

    The figure depicts the global average of skill (top left plot) and skill at the respective study sites. Within study sites, each curve is the posterior mean skill for an individual hunter, standardized to the maximum within each site. In the header of each plot, the site number and three-letter code are shown along with the number of individual hunters in each sample, followed by the number of observed harvests in parentheses. The orange span of ages corresponds to ages observed within each site, while the gray ranges were unobserved and are instead implied by the underlying model. The vertical dashed lines show the average ages at peak within sites.

  • Fig. 3 Variation in components of skill.

    (Top left) Relative variation in k and m. The horizontal axis is the ratio of the SD of k to the SD of m. The vertical dashed line at 1 indicates equality of variances. The orange density is between-site variation. The cyan density is within-site variation. There is more variation in declines (m) than increases (k) in skill within sites, whereas the ratio is roughly equivalent across sites. (Top right) Correlation between k and m among individuals within sites. The orange density is the global average. Each cyan density represents a single site. The Aché stand out and are labeled separately. (Bottom left and bottom right) Variation in k (left) and m (right) comparing variation within and between sites.

  • Table 1 Study sites and their numerical and text codes.

    See the help file of the cchunts package for related citations.

    NumberCodeCountryGroupDataset in cchunts
    package
    1CRECanadaCreeWinterhalder
    2MYABelizeMayaPacheco
    3MYNNicaraguaMayangnaKoster
    4QUIEcuadorQuichuaSiren
    5ECHColombiaEmbera ChamiRoss
    6WAOEcuadorWaoraniFranzen
    7BARVenezuelaBariBeckerman
    8INUCanadaInuitReady
    9MTSPeruMatsigenkaYu_et_al
    10PIRPeruPiroAlvard
    11CLBColombiaVan_Vliet_et_al_
    South_America_sites
    12PMEVenezuelaPumeKramer_Greaves
    13TS1BoliviaTsimaneFernandez_
    Llamazares
    14TS2BoliviaTsimaneReyes-Garcia
    15TS3BoliviaTsimaneTrumble_Gurven
    16ACHParaguayAchéHill_Kintigh
    17GB1GabonCoad
    18GB2GabonVan_Vliet_et_al_Gabon
    19GB3GabonVan_Vliet_et_al_Ovan
    20CN1DR CongoVan_Vliet_et_al_
    Phalanga
    21GB4GabonVan_Vliet_et_al_
    Djoutou
    22BK1CameroonBakaGallois
    23BK2CameroonBakaDuda
    24CN2CongoVan_Vliet_et_al_Ingolo
    25CN3CongoVan_Vliet_et_al_
    Ngombe
    26BFACentral African
    Republic
    Bofi and AkaLupo_Schmitt
    27CN4DR CongoVan_Vliet_et_al_Baego
    28BISZambiaValley BisaMarks
    29HEHTanzaniaNielsen
    30DLGRussiaDolganZiker
    31BTKMalaysiaBatekVenkataraman_et_al
    32PN1IndonesiaPunanGueze
    33PN2IndonesiaPunanNapitupulu
    34AGTPhilippinesAgtaHeadland
    35MRTAustraliaMartuBird_Bird_Codding
    36NUAIndonesiaNuauluEllen
    37NIMIndonesiaNimboranPangau_Adam
    38NENPapua New
    Guinea
    NenHealey_Nen_PNG
    39MARPapua New
    Guinea
    MaringHealey
    40WOLPapua New
    Guinea
    WolaSillitoe

Supplementary Materials

  • Supplementary Materials

    The life history of human foraging: Cross-cultural and individual variation

    Jeremy Koster, Richard McElreath, Kim Hill, Douglas Yu, Glenn Shepard Jr., Nathalie van Vliet, Michael Gurven, Benjamin Trumble, Rebecca Bliege Bird, Douglas Bird, Brian Codding, Lauren Coad, Luis Pacheco-Cobos, Bruce Winterhalder, Karen Lupo, Dave Schmitt, Paul Sillitoe, Margaret Franzen, Michael Alvard, Vivek Venkataraman, Thomas Kraft, Kirk Endicott, Stephen Beckerman, Stuart A. Marks, Thomas Headland, Margaretha Pangau-Adam, Anders Siren, Karen Kramer, Russell Greaves, Victoria Reyes-García, Maximilien Guèze, Romain Duda, Álvaro Fernández-Llamazares, Sandrine Gallois, Lucentezza Napitupulu, Roy Ellen, John Ziker, Martin R. Nielsen, Elspeth Ready, Christopher Healey, Cody Ross

    Download Supplement

    This PDF file includes:

    • Description of the data
    • The life history foraging model
    • Formal model definition
    • Supplemental Results
    • Figs. S1 to S12
    • Appendix A

    Files in this Data Supplement:

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