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Smart, soft contact lens for wireless immunosensing of cortisol

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Science Advances  08 Jul 2020:
Vol. 6, no. 28, eabb2891
DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.abb2891
  • Fig. 1 Cortisol immunosensor.

    (A) Process of C-Mab immobilization. (B) Schematic image of the graphene FET structure. (C) Optical microscope image of the fabricated graphene FET device. Scale bar, 200 μm. (D) Transfer curve of the drain current according to the gate voltage.

  • Fig. 2 In vitro tests.

    (A) Real-time, relative current change at gate voltage VG = 0 V and drain voltage VD = 0.1 V. (B) Calibration curve of the relative current change according to the cortisol concentration. (C) Relative resistance change according to the cortisol concentration in the buffer and the artificial tear solvent. (D) Relative change in the resistance of the sensor according to the cortisol concentration at 22°C and at 36.5°C. Each data point indicates the average for 10 samples, and the error bars represent the SDs.

  • Fig. 3 NFC and stretchable and transparent AgNF-AgNW hybrid antenna.

    (A) Circuit diagram connected with NFC chip, cortisol sensor, and components including antenna and resistor. (B) Schematic illustration of the stretchable and transparent antenna for wireless communications. (C) Scanning electron microscopy image of random networks of AgNF-AgNW hybrid structure. Scale bar, 20 μm. (D) Transparency of the AgNF-AgNW hybrid patterned antenna coil. (E) Stretching-relaxing cycle test conducted up to 300 times of the AgNF-AgNW hybrid with negligible strain up to 30% (inset: AgNF-AgNW hybrid electrode strain test). (F) The resonance frequency of the patterned antenna resulting in 13.56 MHz.

  • Fig. 4 Smart contact lens packaging.

    (A) Schematic of the packaged smart contact lens integrated with three-dimensional (3D) printed stretchable interconnects and cortisol sensor located on the rigid island. A capacitor and a resistor were integrated for resonance frequency and reference resistance, respectively. (B) Photograph of the smart contact lens that was fabricated (inset: close-up outer image of the smart contact lens). Scale bars, 1 cm. (C) Optical transmittance and haziness of the rigid-soft hybrid material. (D) Radiation characteristics before and after reversion of the stretchable antenna. (E) Relative resonance frequency change immersed in the PBS and artificial tears up to 192 hours (inset: radiation characteristics of the antenna after immersion tests in artificial tears for 12 and 192 hours, respectively). Photo credit: (B) Minjae Ku, Yonsei University.

  • Fig. 5 In vivo tests.

    (A) Photograph of an adult woman wearing the smart contact lens on her left eye (inset: close-up image of the smart contact lens on the eye). (B) Schematic image of the cortisol level measurement using the smart contact lens. (C and D) SAR that resulted from the simulation. (E) Slit-lamp images of a human eye with fluorescein staining before and after wearing the smart contact lens. Scale bars, 1 cm. (F) Cortisol concentration measured using the contact lens sensor as a function of the concentration of the cortisol solution that was dropped into the eye. Each data point indicates the average for 10 samples, and the error bars represent the SDs. (G) Cytotoxicity test of the smart contact lenses. Photo credits: (A) Joohee Kim, Yonsei University and (E) Minjae Ku, Yonsei University.

Supplementary Materials

  • Supplementary Materials

    Smart, soft contact lens for wireless immunosensing of cortisol

    Minjae Ku, Joohee Kim, Jong-Eun Won, Wonkyu Kang, Young-Geun Park, Jihun Park, Jae-Hyun Lee, Jinwoo Cheon, Hyun Ho Lee, Jang-Ung Park

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    • Supplementary Materials and Methods
    • Figs. S1 to S9
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