Research ArticleHEALTH AND MEDICINE

Evaluating the impact of long-term exposure to fine particulate matter on mortality among the elderly

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Science Advances  17 Jul 2020:
Vol. 6, no. 29, eaba5692
DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.aba5692
  • Table 1 Characteristics for the study cohorts.

    Note that mean (SD) is presented for continuous variables.

    VariablesEntire Medicare enrolleesMedicare enrollees exposed to PM2.5 ≤ 12 μg/m3
    Number of individuals68,503,97938,366,800
    Number of deaths27,106,63910,124,409
    Total person years573,370,257259,469,768
    Median years of follow-up8.08.0
    Individual-level characteristics
    Age at entry (years)
    65–74 (%)80.688.1
    75–84 (%)14.99.0
    85–94 (%)4.12.6
    95 or above (%)0.40.2
    Mean (SD)69.2 (6.7)67.6 (5.6)
    Sex
    Female (%)55.553.8
    Male (%)44.546.2
    Race
    White (%)83.984.7
    Black (%)9.17.3
    Asian (%)1.81.8
    Hispanic (%)2.02.2
    North American Native (%)0.30.4
    Medicaid eligibility
    Eligible (%)11.710.9
    Area-level risk factors characteristics
    Ever smoked (%)47.347.3
    Below poverty level (%)10.510.1
    Below high school education (%)28.525.6
    Owner-occupied housing (%)72.072.9
    Hispanic (%)8.97.5
    Black (%)8.99.2
    Population density (persons/km2)600.0 (1953.9)489.1(1634.0)
    Mean BMI (kg/m2)27.6 (1.1)27.6 (1.1)
    Median household income ($1000)48.9 (21.7)50.3 (22.0)
    Median home value ($1000)162.5 (140.9)170.9 (146.2)
    Meteorological variables
    Summer temperature (°C)29.5 (3.7)29.5 (3.9)
    Winter temperature (°C)7.6 (7.2)7.4 (7.6)
    Summer relative humidity (%)88.0 (11.7)86.7 (12.7)
    Winter relative humidity (%)86.2 (7.3)86.4 (7.6)
    PM2.5 concentrations (μg/m3)9.8 (3.2)8.4 (2.3)

Supplementary Materials

  • Supplementary Materials

    Evaluating the impact of long-term exposure to fine particulate matter on mortality among the elderly

    X. Wu, D. Braun, J. Schwartz, M. A. Kioumourtzoglou, F. Dominici

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    This PDF file includes:

    • Sections S1 to S4
    • Figs. S1 to S5
    • Tables S1 to S5
    • References

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