Research ArticleSTRUCTURAL BIOLOGY

Structural mechanism of two gain-of-function cardiac and skeletal RyR mutations at an equivalent site by cryo-EM

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Science Advances  29 Jul 2020:
Vol. 6, no. 31, eabb2964
DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.abb2964

Abstract

Mutations in ryanodine receptors (RyRs), intracellular Ca2+ channels, are associated with deadly disorders. Despite abundant functional studies, the molecular mechanism of RyR malfunction remains elusive. We studied two single-point mutations at an equivalent site in the skeletal (RyR1 R164C) and cardiac (RyR2 R176Q) isoforms using ryanodine binding, Ca2+ imaging, and cryo–electron microscopy (cryo-EM) of the full-length protein. Loss of the positive charge had greater effect on the skeletal isoform, mediated via distortion of a salt bridge network, a molecular latch inducing rotation of a cytoplasmic domain, and partial progression to open-state traits of the large cytoplasmic assembly accompanied by alteration of the Ca2+ binding site, which concur with the major “hyperactive” feature of the mutated channel. Our cryo-EM studies demonstrated the allosteric effect of a mutation situated ~85 Å away from the pore and identified an isoform-specific structural effect.

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