Research ArticleAPPLIED SCIENCES AND ENGINEERING

3D printed patient-specific aortic root models with internal sensors for minimally invasive applications

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Science Advances  28 Aug 2020:
Vol. 6, no. 35, eabb4641
DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.abb4641
  • Fig. 1 Overview of the patient-specific, 3D printed aortic root model concept and components.

    (A) Schematic of the heart with implanted TAVR prosthesis in the aortic root region. AV, atrioventricular. (B) 3D printed aortic root model with internally integrated sensor array. Photo credit: Ghazaleh Haghiashtiani and Kaiyan Qiu, University of Minnesota. (C) Different components of the aortic root model. The calcified regions are shown in yellow. The approximate region of the membranous septum is indicated with the blue marking.

  • Fig. 2 Characterization of material properties.

    (A) Young’s modulus (<3% strain) of the custom-formulated polymeric material versus different weight ratios of the components (n = 3). (B) Ratio of material weight loss after 96 hours for different compositions of the customized polymeric material upon immersion in hexane, air, and a water/glycerol solution (n = 3). (C) Stress-strain plots of myocardium tissue specimens and corresponding polymeric materials. (D) Stress-strain plots of aortic tissue specimens and corresponding polymeric materials, as well as the calcification materials. (E) Oscillatory rheology data of the storage modulus of different custom-formulated polymeric inks and comparison to active and bulking agents. (F) Oscillatory rheology data of the loss modulus of different custom-formulated polymeric inks and comparison to active and bulking agents. B/A represents the weight ratio of bulking agent to active agent.

  • Fig. 3 Anatomical fidelity analyses of the 3D printed aortic root models and comparison to patient postoperative data.

    (A) CT scan of the 3D printed aortic root model. (B) Calibrated distance map comparing the anatomical fidelity of the 3D printed aortic root model with the patient’s anatomy. (C) Histogram of the calibrated distances between the surface points of the 3D printed aortic root model and the patient’s anatomy. (D) Comparison of the implanted TAVR prosthesis in the 3D printed model with the patient’s postoperative data. RCA, right coronary artery; LCA, left coronary artery. (E) Comparison of changes in frame diameters of the implanted valve in the 3D printed model with the patient’s postoperative data at nine different node levels.

  • Fig. 4 In vitro hemodynamic studies with the 3D printed aortic root models.

    (A) Leaflets of the 3D printed models without calcification (Set 1) at open and closed states used for in vitro hemodynamic evaluation. Photo credit: Ghazaleh Haghiashtiani, Kaiyan Qiu, and Jorge D. Zhingre Sanchez, University of Minnesota. (B) Leaflets of the 3D printed models with calcification (Set 2) at open and closed states used for in vitro hemodynamic evaluations. Photo credit: Ghazaleh Haghiashtiani, Kaiyan Qiu, and Jorge D. Zhingre Sanchez, University of Minnesota. (C) Comparison of compliance of models in Set 1 (without calcification; n = 3) and Set 2 (with calcification; n = 3). (D) Changes in left ventricle pressures (LVPs) and aortic pressures (APs) for model without calcification in consecutive pulsatile flow cycles. (E) Changes in left ventricle pressures and aortic pressures for model with calcification in consecutive pulsatile flow cycles. (F) Detection of potential PVL sites (indicated by the white arrows) in the 3D printed aortic root model with implanted valve and corresponding color Doppler echocardiographs (left, middle, and right panels correspond to regions 1, 2, and 3, respectively). RCC, LCC, and NCC denote right coronary cusp, left coronary cusp, and noncoronary cusp, respectively. Photo credit: Ghazaleh Haghiashtiani, Kaiyan Qiu, and Jorge D. Zhingre Sanchez, University of Minnesota.

  • Fig. 5 3D printed aortic root model with internal sensor arrays and visualization of applied pressures after valve implantation.

    (A) Schematic of the sensor array concept design in planar configuration. (B) 3D printed aortic root model with internal sensor array (left) and the corresponding isolated sensor region (right). The vertical (orange) and horizontal (green) electrodes of the integrated sensor arrays on the model correspond to the top and bottom electrodes in the planar design, respectively. (C) Implantation of the 29-mm Evolut R TAVR valve frame at a shallow height. (D) Implantation of the 29-mm Evolut R TAVR valve frame at an intermediate height. (E) Implantation of the 29-mm Evolut R TAVR valve frame at a deep height. The red marked lines in (C) to (E) correspond to the intermediate implantation height. (F) Implantation of the 26-mm Evolut R TAVR valve at an intermediate height. (G) Implantation of the 29-mm Evolut R TAVR valve at an intermediate height. (H) Implantation of the 31-mm CoreValve TAVR valve at an intermediate height. Photo credit for (B) to (H): Ghazaleh Haghiashtiani and Kaiyan Qiu, University of Minnesota.

Supplementary Materials

  • Supplementary Materials

    3D printed patient-specific aortic root models with internal sensors for minimally invasive applications

    Ghazaleh Haghiashtiani, Kaiyan Qiu, Jorge D. Zhingre Sanchez, Zachary J. Fuenning, Priya Nair, Sarah E. Ahlberg, Paul A. Iaizzo, Michael C. McAlpine

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