Research ArticleNEUROSCIENCE

Macro- and microstructural changes in cosmonauts’ brains after long-duration spaceflight

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Science Advances  04 Sep 2020:
Vol. 6, no. 36, eaaz9488
DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.aaz9488
  • Fig. 1 Whole-brain CSF VF changes from pre- to postflight and from postflight to follow-up.

    CSF VF increases and decreases from pre- to postflight are shown in (A). CSF VF increases and decreases between postflight and follow-up are shown in (B). Results from paired t tests at a significance threshold of P < 0.05 FWE corrected. Background images are averaged images of all subjects in subject-specific template space. Overlaid results are binary on the three-dimensional (3D) volume render and are scaled by the unstandardized effect size (i.e., the difference between two time points) on the axial slices. A, anterior; P, posterior; L, left; R, right.

  • Fig. 2 Whole-brain GM VF changes from pre- to postflight and from postflight to follow-up.

    GM VF increases and decreases from pre- to postflight are shown in (A). GM VF increases and decreases between postflight and follow-up are shown in (B). Results from paired t tests at a significance threshold of P < 0.05 FWE corrected. Background images are averaged images of all subjects in subject-specific template space. Overlaid results are binary on the 3D volume render and are scaled by the unstandardized effect size (i.e., the difference between two time points) on the axial slices. A, anterior; P, posterior; L, left; R, right.

  • Fig. 3 Whole-brain GM mVF changes from pre- to postflight and from postflight to follow-up.

    GM mVF increases and decreases from pre- to postflight are shown in (A). GM mVF increases and decreases between postflight and follow-up are shown in (B). Results from paired t tests at a significance threshold of P < 0.05 FWE corrected. Background images are averaged images of all subjects in the subject-specific template. Overlaid results are binary on the 3D volume render and are scaled by the unstandardized effect size (i.e., the difference between two time points) on the coronal slices. A, anterior; P, posterior; L, left; R, right.

  • Fig. 4 Whole-brain WM mVF changes from pre- to postflight and from postflight to follow-up.

    WM mVF increases and decreases from pre- to postflight are shown in (A). WM mVF increases and decreases between postflight and follow-up are shown in (B). Results from paired t tests at a significance threshold of P < 0.05 FWE corrected. Background images are averaged images of all subjects in the subject-specific template space. Overlaid results are binary on the 3D volume render and are scaled by the unstandardized effect size (i.e., the difference between two time points) on the sagittal slices. A, anterior; P, posterior; L, left; R, right.

  • Fig. 5 Relation between GM and CSF changes through ROI-based analysis.

    ROIs are depicted as binarized images overlaid onto 3D volume renders (left). Next to each ROI image, box plots show the differences in tissue VF and tissue mVF between and the volume ratio of (i) the two measurements of the control group volunteers (VOL), (ii) postflight (post) and preflight (pre) in cosmonauts (COS), and (iii) follow-up (fol) and preflight in cosmonauts. The centerline of the box plot indicates the median, the bottom and top edges of the box mark the 25th and 75th percentiles, respectively, and the whiskers extend to the most extreme data points, excluding outliers.

  • Fig. 6 GM and WM changes in brain motor areas through ROI-based analysis.

    ROIs are depicted as binarized images overlaid onto 3D volume renders (left). Next to each ROI image, box plots show the differences in tissue VF and tissue mVF between and the volume ratio of (i) the two measurements of the control group volunteers (VOL), (ii) postflight (post) and preflight (pre) in cosmonauts (COS), and (iii) follow-up (fol) and preflight in cosmonauts. The centerline of the box plot indicates the median, the bottom and top edges of the box mark the 25th and 75th percentiles, respectively, and the whiskers extend to the most extreme data points, excluding outliers.

Supplementary Materials

  • Supplementary Materials

    Macro- and microstructural changes in cosmonauts’ brains after long-duration spaceflight

    Steven Jillings, Angelique Van Ombergen, Elena Tomilovskaya, Alena Rumshiskaya, Liudmila Litvinova, Inna Nosikova, Ekaterina Pechenkova, Ilya Rukavishnikov, Inessa B. Kozlovskaya, Olga Manko, Sergey Danilichev, Stefan Sunaert, Paul M. Parizel, Valentin Sinitsyn, Victor Petrovichev, Steven Laureys, Peter zu Eulenburg, Jan Sijbers, Floris L. Wuyts, Ben Jeurissen

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