Research ArticleMATERIALS SCIENCE

Bioinspired liquid gating membrane-based catheter with anticoagulation and positionally drug release properties

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Science Advances  04 Sep 2020:
Vol. 6, no. 36, eabb4700
DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.abb4700
  • Fig. 1 Design and preparation of bioinspired LGMC.

    (A) Electrospinning method is used to fabricate the microporous membrane-based catheter, after which the liquid design is carried out to form the LGMC with specific stability and functionality. HV, high voltage. (B) Inspired by blood vessels, which have adaptive tube sizes (32) and with special mass transfer pathways on vascular walls (33), the LGMC is designed with the unique ability of the gating liquid to deform and reconfigure in situ to respond to the capillary pressure. Thus, the LGMC can be tunable in sizes with the changes of environmental pressures. The anticoagulation property is realized by the persistent lining of gating liquid at the surfaces. In addition, positionally drug release with tunable adding positions is actualized by the liquid gating microporous membrane-based structures.

  • Fig. 2 The controllability and stability of LGMC.

    (A) Digital images of bare PVDF catheters with different diameters, in which the last shows a further amplified topography of the catheter with 1.5 mm diameter. (B) Transmembrane pressure thresholds of LGMC decrease with increasing spinning solution mass fractions. (C) SEM images of different catheters spun with different spinning solutions. (D) Illustration of related configurations and energy calculation to establish a stable LGMC. (E) Stability of LGMC after shear. Sliding angles on LGMC are tested to identify their stability. Shear action is applied by a cone-plate rheometer, with shear rates ranging from 500 to 2500 s−1. A blood viscosity simulant [35% (v/v) glycerol] is used as media. (F) Dynamic performance of LGMC. Left: A 3D reconstruction of LGMC with fluorescent dyed gating liquid. Top right: The images focusing on the upper parallel wall surface with changing inner pressures. Bottom right: Illustrations of the above dynamic behaviors.

  • Fig. 3 Biocompatibility and anticoagulation property of the LGMC.

    (A) Hemolysis ratio, in which the value of LGMC is significantly lower than that of the bare PVDF catheter. (B) Normalized clotting parameters of the bare PVDF and LGMC based on black values. (C) Cytocompatibility of the bare PVDF and LGMC, in which the histogram shows the cytotoxicity result based on the CCK-8 kit, and confocal images reveal the morphology of cells attached on LGMC. (D) SEM images of platelet adhesion on the bare PVDF and LGMC. (E) Statistical analysis of platelet adhesion numbers on PVDF and LGMC based on three replicates. (F) Whole blood drops sliding off the LGMC with no trails behind while keeping still on the PVDF at the same tilt angle (30°) (scale bar, 5 mm). (G) Photographs of PVDF and LGMC after exposure to whole blood for 30 min, with a flow rate of 4 ml min−1. Histogram values are a statistical analysis of red pixels using Photoshop in the same operation (*P < 0.05). (Photo credit: Chunyan Wang, Xiamen University.)

  • Fig. 4 Positionally drug release properties of the LGMC.

    (A) Diagrams of the catheters used for drug release experiments and detection positions, in which the adding position is tunable. (B) Corresponding signals collected at the positions in (A). (C) Diagrams and experimental results of oil-soluble and water-soluble molecules released from LGMC.

  • Table 1 Thermodynamic calculation for the selection of components of the LGMCs.

    Y, yes; N, no.

    Microporous
    membranes
    Gating liquidTransport
    fluid
    γAγBγABθAθBΔEIΔEIIStable?
    Theo.Exp.
    9.2% PVDFPerfluorodecalinDI water72.417.853.995.20−5.330.8Y/NN
    11.4% PVDFPerfluorodecalinDI water72.417.853.9126.2067.2103.4YY
    13.7% PVDFPerfluorodecalinDI water72.417.853.9133.3081.0117.2YY
    15.9% PVDFPerfluorodecalinDI water72.417.853.9127.9070.72106.9YY
    18.1% PVDFPerfluorodecalinDI water72.417.853.972.40−62.1−26.0NN
    15.9% PVDFKrytox 100DI water72.416.423.6127.9090.2105.4YY
    15.9% PVDFKrytox 103DI water72.417.124.9127.9098.6106.2YY
    15.9% PVDFSilicone oil 500DI water72.420.237.0127.9092.5109.3YY

Supplementary Materials

  • Supplementary Materials

    Bioinspired liquid gating membrane-based catheter with anticoagulation and positionally drug release properties

    Chunyan Wang, Shuli Wang, Hong Pan, Lingli Min, Huili Zheng, Huang Zhu, Gang Liu, Weizhong Yang, Xinyu Chen, Xu Hou

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