The small effects of political advertising are small regardless of context, message, sender, or receiver: Evidence from 59 real-time randomized experiments

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Science Advances  02 Sep 2020:
Vol. 6, no. 36, eabc4046
DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.abc4046

Article Information

vol. 6 no. 36

Online ISSN: 
  • Received for publication April 22, 2020
  • Accepted for publication July 21, 2020
  • .

Author Information

  1. Alexander Coppock1,*,
  2. Seth J. Hill2 and
  3. Lynn Vavreck3
  1. 1Department of Political Science, Yale University, New Haven, CT, USA.
  2. 2Department of Political Science, University of California, San Diego, San Diego, CA, USA.
  3. 3Department of Political Science, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, USA.
  1. *Corresponding author. Email: alex.coppock{at}


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