Research ArticleIMMUNOLOGY

B cells polarize pathogenic inflammatory T helper subsets through ICOSL-dependent glycolysis

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Science Advances  09 Sep 2020:
Vol. 6, no. 37, eabb6296
DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.abb6296

Abstract

B cells constitute abundant cellular components in inflamed human tissues, but their role in pathogenesis of inflammatory T helper (TH) subsets is still unclear. Here, we demonstrate that B cells, particularly resting naïve B cells, have a previously unrecognized helper function that is involved in shaping the metabolic process and subsequent inflammatory differentiation of T-cell receptor–primed TH cells. ICOS/ICOSL axis–mediated glucose incorporation and utilization were crucial for inflammatory TH subset induction by B cells, and activation of mTOR was critical for T cell glycolysis in this process. Consistently, upon encountering ICOSL+ B cells, activated effector memory TH cells from patients with rheumatoid arthritis or systemic lupus erythematosus spontaneously differentiated into inflammatory TH subsets. Immunotherapy using rituximab that specifically depleted B cells in patients with rheumatoid arthritis efficiently abrogated the capabilities of memory TH cells to incorporate and use glucose, thereby impairing the pathogenic differentiation of inflammatory TH subsets.

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