Research ArticlePALEONTOLOGY

Paleozoic ammonoid ecomorphometrics test ecospace availability as a driver of morphological diversification

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Science Advances  09 Sep 2020:
Vol. 6, no. 37, eabc2365
DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.abc2365
  • Fig. 1 Measured ammonoids in WM.

    U, umbilical exposure (maximized in serpenticones); Th, overall inflation (maximized in spherocones); w, whorl expansion (maximized in oxycones); D, demersal. Black lines demark areas for each ecomorphological megaguild.

  • Fig. 2 Paleozoic ammonoid richness and disparity.

    Ranged-through (RT), per-million-year plots of ammonoid data from the Devonian (Emsian) through the Triassic (Induan). Purple, Triassic (Early Triassic); Guad., Guadalupian; Lopi., Lopingian; Eife., Eifelian; Giv., Givetian; Tour., Tournaisian; Serp., Serpukhovian; Bash., Bashkirian; Mo., Moscovian; K., Kasimovian; Gz., Gzhelian; Ass., Asselian; Sakm., Sakmarian; Art., Artinskian; Ku., Kungurian; R., Roadian; W., Wordian; Ca., Capitanian; Wu., Wuchiapingian; C., Changhsingian; I., Induan. Light red columns demark global mass extinction intervals (43). (A to C) Left axis and black lines, measured species; right axis and blue lines, total species in the AMMON database. (A) Species richness. (B) Species origination rates. (C) Species extinction rates. (D) Proportional ecomorphologies in WM; green, D., demersal; dashed line indicates relative area of each ecomorphological zone within WM; top, planktic; middle, demersal; bottom, nektic. (E to G) Disparity through time from PC2 and PC3. (E) Mean pairwise distances. (F to G) Dark blue shading, null 50% range; light blue shading, null 90% range. (F) Convex hull area; white line, null prediction. (G) Residual convex hull area.

  • Fig. 3 Ammonoid mass extinction recoveries.

    Points, measured 1-million-year stratigraphic bins; vertical red dashed lines, mass extinction terminations; other lines: blue, end-Givetian; red, end-Frasnian; green, end-Famennian; purple, Serpukhovian; gray, end-Guadalupian; yellow, end-Permian. (A) Total ammonoid species richness from the AMMON database, showing the final 2 million years of each mass extinction and the following 2 million years. (B to G) Showing the final 2 million years of each mass extinction and the following 1 million years. (B) Measured ammonoid richness. (C) Mean pairwise distance. (D) Detrended mean pairwise distance. (E) Convex hull area. (F) Residual convex hull area. (G) Detrended residual convex hull area.

Supplementary Materials

  • Supplementary Materials

    Paleozoic ammonoid ecomorphometrics test ecospace availability as a driver of morphological diversification

    Christopher D. Whalen, Pincelli M. Hull, Derek E. G. Briggs

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