Research ArticleANTHROPOLOGY

Ancient DNA shows domestic horses were introduced in the southern Caucasus and Anatolia during the Bronze Age

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Science Advances  16 Sep 2020:
Vol. 6, no. 38, eabb0030
DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.abb0030
  • Fig. 1 Comparative maximum likelihood phylogenetic analyses of horse mitogenome using either the complete mitogenome sequences (left side) or the concatenated mitogenome fragments used for genotyping ancient remains (right side).

    The nomenclature of the horse mitochondrial haplogroups from A to R is as defined by Achilli et al. (47). Haplogroup S corresponds to an additional haplogroup obtained when adding Przewalski’s horse sequences not belonging to the F haplogroup (98). The scale bar represents the number of nucleotide substitution per site as indicated. The branches separating horse, hemione, and donkey sequences are not drawn to scale as indicated by the intersecting parallels. A magnified view of the O-P-Q subtree of the concatenated fragments is represented in the box on the right side. The magnified view additionally reveals the position of the X sequence found in two ancient Anatolian remains. The numbers by the nodes indicate their corresponding bootstrap values.

  • Fig. 2 Mitochondrial and coat color diversity before (top) and after (bottom) 2000 BCE.

    (Left) Evolution of mitochondrial haplotype diversity of horses in Anatolia and the southern Caucasus. (Right) Evolution of coat color genetic diversity in these two geographic regions in the same time ranges. The area of the circles is proportional to the number of individuals present in each category.

Supplementary Materials

  • Supplementary Materials

    Ancient DNA shows domestic horses were introduced in the southern Caucasus and Anatolia during the Bronze Age

    Silvia Guimaraes, Benjamin S. Arbuckle, Joris Peters, Sarah E. Adcock, Hijlke Buitenhuis, Hannah Chazin, Ninna Manaseryan, Hans-Peter Uerpmann, Thierry Grange, Eva-Maria Geigl

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