Research ArticleNEUROSCIENCE

Shaping brain structure: Genetic and phylogenetic axes of macroscale organization of cortical thickness

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Science Advances  25 Sep 2020:
Vol. 6, no. 39, eabb3417
DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.abb3417
  • Fig. 1 Large-scale organization of structural covariance.

    (A) Measuring structural covariance of thickness. (B) Structural covariance matrix using 400 Schaefer parcels (25). (C) Mean correlation within functional network community (23). DMN, default mode network. (D) Gradient decomposition. Left: Principal (G1) and second (G2) macroscale gradient of structural covariance. Middle: Structural covariance strength within and between gradient bins (10 bins). Right: Correlation of G1 and G2 with the principal gradient of resting-state fMRI (28).

  • Fig. 2 Large-scale organization of genetic correlation of cortical thickness.

    (A) Left: Genetic correlation of local cortical thickness in the Schaefer parcellation (25). Right: Mean genetic correlation within/between functional communities (23). (B) Left: Environmental correlation of cortical thickness. Middle: Mean environmental correlation within/between functional communities (23). Right: Functional communities (23). (C) Gradient decomposition. Left: Principal (G1) and second (G2) macroscale gradient. Middle: Average genetic correlation within and between gradient bins (10 bins). Right: Correlation between G1 and G2 and principal gradient in resting-state fMRI (28). (D) Left: Parcel-wise difference between the structural covariance gradients (GSCOV) and the genetic correlation gradients (GGC). Blue indicates higher gradient ranking in GSCOV, and red indicates higher gradient ranking in GGC. Middle: Density plots (blue, GSCOV; green is overlap; red, GGC) and Right: Scatter of the structural covariance and genetic correlation gradients.

  • Fig. 3 Structural covariance gradient in macaque monkeys.

    (A) Top: Markov parcellation (32). Bottom: Mean cortical thickness in 41 macaques from three independent sites (Davis, Oxford, and Newcastle). Right: Structural covariance of thickness matrix in macaques. (B) Gradient decomposition: primary gradient (G1) and secondary gradient (G2) of the structural covariance matrix. (C) Comparison of human and macaque gradients. Red indicates a higher gradient ranking in humans, whereas blue indicates a higher gradient ranking in macaques. Scatter plots indicate the association between human posterior-anterior covariance gradient (G1, black) and human inferior-superior covariance (G2, red) and macaque principal gradient (G1, top scatterplot) and secondary gradient (G2, bottom scatterplot).

  • Fig. 4 Cross-species topology of covariance as a function of the dual origin theory.

    (A) Left: distance from archicortex and paleocortex in humans. Middle: genetic correlation as a function of archi- and paleocortex distance (10 bins). Right: Association between G1 and G2 of genetic correlation of thickness and distance from archicortex and paleocortex in humans (both gradients binned in two bins and linear relationship between gradient and distance). (B) Left: Distance from archicortex and paleocortex in macaque monkeys (34). Middle: structural covariance as a function of archi- and paleocortex distance (10 bins) (34). Right: Association between G1 and G2 of thickness covariance and distance from archicortex and paleocortex in macaque monkeys (both gradients binned in two bins, as well as linear relationship between gradient and distance). (C) Left: Sensory-fugal maps of laminar differentiation (77). Middle: Genetic correlation as a function of laminar module. Right: Gradients versus laminal module.

Supplementary Materials

  • Supplementary Materials

    Shaping brain structure: Genetic and phylogenetic axes of macroscale organization of cortical thickness

    Sofie L. Valk, Ting Xu, Daniel S. Margulies, Shahrzad Kharabian Masouleh, Casey Paquola, Alexandros Goulas, Peter Kochunov, Jonathan Smallwood, B. T. Thomas Yeo, Boris C. Bernhardt, Simon B. Eickhoff

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