Research ArticleSOCIAL SCIENCES

Multi-isotope evidence for the emergence of cultural alterity in Late Neolithic Europe

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Science Advances  22 Jan 2020:
Vol. 6, no. 4, eaay2169
DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.aay2169
  • Fig. 1 Location of the Late Neolithic burial sites of the Rioja Alavesa region and summed probability distributions of the available Late Neolithic/Early Chalcolithic radiocarbon dates from the funerary sites under study [(19)], pooled by burial location.

    Locations (top): 1, Las Yurdinas II; 2, Los Husos I; 3, Los Husos II; 4, Peña Larga; 5, La Peña de Maranón; 6, La Cascaja; 7, El Montecillo; 8, Layaza; 9, El Sotillo; 10, San Martín; 11, Alto de la Huesera; 12, Chabola de la Hechicera; 13, El Encinal; 14, Los Llanos; 15, Longar. The radiocarbon dates (bottom) are modeled using OxCal 4.2.2.

  • Fig. 2 Comparison between dentine collagen carbon (δ13Cdcol) and nitrogen (δ15Ndcol) isotope profiles of M1s and M2s from caves (green) and monuments (blue).

    Shaded areas represent the mean values ±1 pooled SDs (√GV) at different age periods (0 to 2.9, 3 to 4.9, 5 to 6.9, 7 to 9.9, 10 to 11.9, and 12 to 16). Mean values obtained on the bone collagen (δ13Cbcol and δ15Nbcol) of cave and megalithic individuals at adulthood (18) are shown for reference. A schematic graph has been included to illustrate the correspondence between tooth developmental ages and anatomy (34) used to assign age to each dentine sample (where DEJ is dentine enamel junction, CEJ is cementum enamel junction, and VPDB is Vienna Pee Dee belemnite).

  • Fig. 3 Dispersion of weaning cessation ages by site type and by sex and site type.

    Left, by site type; right, by sex and site type.

  • Fig. 4 Dispersion of δ13Cap values by site type and by sex and site type.

    Left, by site type; right, by sex and site type.

  • Fig. 5 Prehistoric human and modern plant strontium isotope values (87Sr/86Sr) plotted against latitude (ETRS89, 30°N).

    Both the mean values estimated for local geological formations and the Rioja Alavesa region’s latitudinally cross-sectioned topography are shown for reference.

  • Fig. 6 Correlation between human strontium isotope values (87Sr/86Sr) and strontium concentrations ([Sr]).

Supplementary Materials

  • Supplementary material for this article is available at http://advances.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/full/6/4/eaay2169/DC1

    Fig. S1. Density distribution of dentine collagen carbon (δ13Cdcol) isotope values, by site type and by sex and site type.

    Fig. S2. Summary graph of dentine collagen nitrogen (δ15Ndcol) and carbon (δ13Cdcol) isotope values, enamel carbonate oxygen (δ18Oc) isotope values, enamel apatite carbon (δ13Cap) and strontium (87Sr/86Sr) isotope values, and strontium ([Sr]) and calcium ([Ca]) concentrations for the 32 individuals analyzed in the study.

    Fig. S3. Dispersion of (δ13Cdcol) and (δ13Cap) ΔM1-M2 values for the 27 individuals selected for a life history approach.

    Fig. S4. Dispersion of M1 and M2 Δ13Cdcol-ap values for the 27 individuals selected for a life history approach.

    Fig. S5. Correlation between latitude and both M1 and M2 enamel carbonate (δ18Oc) and modern water (δ18Odw) oxygen isotope values.

    Fig. S6. Dispersion of enamel carbonate oxygen isotope values (δ18Oc) by site type and by sex and site type.

    Fig. S7. Dispersion of strontium isotope values (87Sr/86Sr) by site type and by sex and site type.

    Fig. S8. Map with the geological formations of the Rioja Alavesa region and surrounding areas, with reference to the locations where modern plant, salt, and water samples were obtained.

    Fig. S9. Strontium isotope ratios (87Sr/86Sr) for the individuals analyzed compared to the average BASr values for their burial sites and 15-, 30-, 60-, and 120-min walk distance catchments around these.

    Fig. S10. Dispersion of [Sr](ppm)/[Ca](%) ratios by site type and by sex and site type.

    Fig. S11. Correlation between M2s’ [Sr] values and (i) dentine collagen carbon isotope values (δ13Cdcol), (ii) dentine collagen nitrogen isotope values (δ15Ndcol), (iii) enamel apatite carbon isotope values (δ13Cap), and (iv) enamel carbonate oxygen isotope values (δ18Oc).

    Fig. S12. δ13Cdcol (open purple squares) and δ15Ndcol (open orange triangles) isotope profiles of the M1 and M2 of the eight individuals showing clear dips around ages 9 to 11.

    Table S1. Sequential dentine collagen carbon (δ13Cdcol) and nitrogen (δ15Ndcol) isotope values from the 27 individuals selected for the early life history approach.

    Table S2. Comparison between cave and megalithic grave dentine collagen carbon (δ13Cdcol) and nitrogen (δ15Ndcol) isotope values.

    Table S3. Comparison between cave and megalithic male and female dentine collagen carbon isotope values (δ13Cdcol).

    Table S4. Estimated duration of exclusive breastfeeding and weaning process, age at complete weaning, and preweaning and postweaning dentine collagen nitrogen isotope values (δ15Ndcol) for the 27 individuals selected for the early life history approach.

    Table S5. Summary table of adult bone collagen carbon (δ13Cbcol) and nitrogen (δ15Nbcol) isotope values, dentine collagen carbon (δ13Cdcol) and nitrogen (δ15Ndcol) isotope values (mean), enamel carbonate oxygen isotope values (δ18Oc), and enamel apatite carbon (δ13Cap) and strontium (87Sr/86Sr) isotope, and strontium ([Sr]) and calcium concentration ([Ca]) values for the 32 individuals analyzed in the study.

    Table S6. Comparison between M1 and M2 crowns’ dentine collagen (δ13Ccol) and enamel apatite (δ13Cap) carbon isotope values, including Δ calculation, by site and burial location.

    Table S7. Modern stream and lake water oxygen isotope values (δ18Odw) from the Rioja Alavesa region.

    Table S8. Modern plant samples analyzed for the creation of the BASr map of the Rioja Alavesa region and strontium isotope (87Sr/86Sr) and strontium ([Sr]) and calcium concentration ([Ca]) values obtained from them.

    Table S9. BASr (87Sr/86Sr ± 1 SD) for the local area (“local BASr”) and the average BASr values calculated for 15-, 30-, 60-, and 120-min walking distance catchments.

    Table S10. Correspondence between the enamel apatite strontium isotope values (87Sr/86Sr) of the 32 individuals analyzed and the average BASr values calculated for the 0- to 60-min, 60- to 120-min, and >120-min walking areas from their respective burial locations.

    Table S11. Strontium isotope (87Sr/86Sr) and strontium ([Sr]) and calcium concentration ([Ca]) values of salt and both spring and surface salt waters from the Rioja Alavesa region.

  • Supplementary Materials

    This PDF file includes:

    • Fig. S1. Density distribution of dentine collagen carbon (δ13Cdcol) isotope values, by site type and by sex and site type.
    • Fig. S2. Summary graph of dentine collagen nitrogen (δ15Ndcol) and carbon (δ13Cdcol) isotope values, enamel carbonate oxygen (δ18Oc) isotope values, enamel apatite carbon (δ13Cap) and strontium (87Sr/86Sr) isotope values, and strontium (Sr) and calcium (Ca) concentrations for the 32 individuals analyzed in the study.
    • Fig. S3. Dispersion of (δ13Cdcol) and (δ13Cap) ΔM1-M2 values for the 27 individuals selected for a life history approach.
    • Fig. S4. Dispersion of M1 and M2 Δ13Cdcol-ap values for the 27 individuals selected for a life history approach.
    • Fig. S5. Correlation between latitude and both M1 and M2 enamel carbonate (δ18Oc) and modern water (δ18Odw) oxygen isotope values.
    • Fig. S6. Dispersion of enamel carbonate oxygen isotope values (δ18Oc) by site type and by sex and site type.
    • Fig. S7. Dispersion of strontium isotope values (87Sr/86Sr) by site type and by sex and site type.
    • Fig. S8. Map with the geological formations of the Rioja Alavesa region and surrounding areas, with reference to the locations where modern plant, salt, and water samples were obtained.
    • Fig. S9. Strontium isotope ratios (87Sr/86Sr) for the individuals analyzed compared to the average BASr values for their burial sites and 15-, 30-, 60-, and 120-min walk distance catchments around these.
    • Fig. S10. Dispersion of Sr(ppm)/Ca(%) ratios by site type and by sex and site type.
    • Fig. S11. Correlation between M2s’ Sr values and (i) dentine collagen carbon isotope values (δ13Cdcol), (ii) dentine collagen nitrogen isotope values (δ15Ndcol), (iii) enamel apatite carbon isotope values (δ13Cap), and (iv) enamel carbonate oxygen isotope values (δ18Oc).
    • Fig. S12. δ13Cdcol (open purple squares) and δ15Ndcol (open orange triangles) isotope profiles of the M1 and M2 of the eight individuals showing clear dips around ages 9 to 11.
    • Table S1. Sequential dentine collagen carbon (δ13Cdcol) and nitrogen (δ15Ndcol) isotope values from the 27 individuals selected for the early life history approach.
    • Table S2. Comparison between cave and megalithic grave dentine collagen carbon (δ13Cdcol) and nitrogen (δ15Ndcol) isotope values.
    • Table S3. Comparison between cave and megalithic male and female dentine collagen carbon isotope values (δ13Cdcol).
    • Table S4. Estimated duration of exclusive breastfeeding and weaning process, age at complete weaning, and preweaning and postweaning dentine collagen nitrogen isotope values (δ15Ndcol) for the 27 individuals selected for the early life history approach.
    • Table S5. Summary table of adult bone collagen carbon (δ13Cbcol) and nitrogen (δ15Nbcol) isotope values, dentine collagen carbon (δ13Cdcol) and nitrogen (δ15Ndcol) isotope values (mean), enamel carbonate oxygen isotope values (δ18Oc), and enamel apatite carbon (δ13Cap) and strontium (87Sr/86Sr) isotope, and strontium (Sr) and calcium concentration (Ca) values for the 32 individuals analyzed in the study.
    • Table S6. Comparison between M1 and M2 crowns’ dentine collagen (δ13Ccol) and enamel apatite (δ13Cap) carbon isotope values, including Δ calculation, by site and burial location.
    • Table S7. Modern stream and lake water oxygen isotope values (δ18Odw) from the Rioja Alavesa region.
    • Table S8. Modern plant samples analyzed for the creation of the BASr map of the Rioja Alavesa region and strontium isotope (87Sr/86Sr) and strontium (Sr) and calcium concentration (Ca) values obtained from them.
    • Table S9. BASr (87Sr/86Sr ± 1 SD) for the local area (“local BASr”) and the average BASr values calculated for 15-, 30-, 60-, and 120-min walking distance catchments.
    • Table S10. Correspondence between the enamel apatite strontium isotope values (87Sr/86Sr) of the 32 individuals analyzed and the average BASr values calculated for the 0- to 60-min, 60- to 120-min, and >120-min walking areas from their respective burial locations.
    • Table S11. Strontium isotope (87Sr/86Sr) and strontium (Sr) and calcium concentration (Ca) values of salt and both spring and surface salt waters from the Rioja Alavesa region.

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