Research ArticleSOCIAL SCIENCES

A social-belonging intervention improves STEM outcomes for students who speak English as a second language

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Science Advances  02 Oct 2020:
Vol. 6, no. 40, eabb6543
DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.abb6543
  • Table 1 Summary of term 1 and year 1 proportion of credits earned and GPA results.

    Summary of term 1 and year 1 proportion of credits earned and GPA results.. SEs are in parentheses. For main effects analyses, condition was coded as −0.5 = control, 0.5 = treatment; ESL was coded as −0.5 = non-ESL, 0.5 = ESL; and cohort was coded as 0 = cohort 1, 1 = cohort 2. To obtain condition effects among ESL students and non-ESL students individually, we performed two separate sets of analyses with condition recoded. For condition effects among ESL students, ESL status was recentered so 0 = ESL, 1 = non-ESL. For condition effects among non-ESL students, ESL status was recentered so 0 = non-ESL, 1 = ESL. See the R code at the end of the Supplementary Materials for more information about the specifications for each analysis presented. ***P < 0.001, **P < 0.01, and *P < 0.05.

    Term 1Year 1
    PredictorBelonging changeProportion of STEM
    credits completed
    STEM GPAProportion of STEM
    credits completed
    STEM GPA
    Main effect of
    condition
    0.26*** (0.02)0.02** (0.01)0.05** (0.02)0.01* (0.00)0.01 (0.02)
    Main effect of ESL
    status
    −0.03 (0.02)0.01 (0.01)0.13*** (0.02)0.01 (0.00)0.12*** (0.02)
    Condition × ESL
    interaction
    −0.09* (0.05)0.03** (0.01)0.12** (0.04)0.03** (0.01)0.06 (0.04)
    Cohort−0.16*** (0.02)−0.00 (0.00)−0.02 (0.02)−0.01 (0.00)−0.03 (0.02)
    ACT composite0.01*** (0.00)0.01*** (0.00)0.09*** (0.00)0.01*** (0.00)0.10*** (0.00)
    Simple effects for the condition × ESL interaction
    Treatment effect
    among ESL students
    0.21*** (0.04)0.03*** (0.01)0.11** (0.04)0.02** (0.01)0.04 (0.03)
    Treatment effect
    among non-ESL
    students
    0.30*** (0.02)0.00 (0.00)−0.01 (0.02)−0.00 (0.00)−0.02 (0.02)
  • Table 2 Moderated mediation results.

    Moderated mediation results.. Condition, coded as −0.5 = control, 0.5 = treatment, was the independent variable; ESL status, coded as −0.5 = non-ESL, 0.5 = ESL, was the moderator; anticipated belonging was the mediator; and each academic outcome was the dependent variable. Consistent with previous analyses, ACT scores and cohort, coded as 0 = cohort 1, 1 = cohort 2, were included as covariates. CI, confidence interval.

    ESL studentsNon-ESL students
    Outcome
    variable
    Indirect effectDirect effectTotal effectProportion of
    total effect
    mediated by
    indirect effect
    Indirect effectDirect effectTotal effectProportion of
    total effect
    mediated by
    indirect effect
    Term 1
    proportion of
    credits
    (n = 11,279)
    b = 0.001193b = 0.031242b = 0.032435b = 0.035918b = 0.001803b = −0.000660b = 0.001143b = 0.206760
    95% CI95% CI95% CI95% CI95% CI95% CI95% CI95% CI
    (0.00038,
    0.00223)
    (0.01331,
    0.04878)
    (0.01465,
    0.04989)
    (0.01140,
    0.09307)
    (0.00062,
    .00302)
    (−0.00995,
    0.00869)
    (−0.00806,
    0.01045)
    (−5.3093,
    6.55635)
    P = 0.0032P < 0.001P < 0.001P = 0.004P = 0.002P = 0.896P = 0.825P = 0.825
    Term 1 GPA
    (n = 10,842)
    b = 0.003548b = 0.109542b = 0.113072b = 0.030710b = 0.005293b = −0.009890b = −0.004653b = −0.129269
    95% CI95% CI95% CI95% CI95% CI95% CI95% CI95% CI
    (0.00036,
    .00757)
    (0.03673,
    0.18097)
    (0.04049,
    0.18478)
    (0.00235,
    0.10483)
    (0.00055,
    0.01012)
    (−0.04760,
    0.02804)
    (−0.04252,
    0.03330)
    (−4.58174,
    3.99880)
    P = 0.029P = 0.004P = 0.003P = 0.032P = 0.028P = 0.617P = 0.822P = 0.824
    Year 1
    proportion of
    credits
    (n = 11,905)
    b = 0.000907b = 0.022373b = 0.023280b = 0.037870b = 0.00140b = −0.00345b = −0.00206b = −0.21906
    95% CI95% CI95% CI95% CI95% CI95% CI95% CI95% CI
    (0.00022,
    0.00176)
    (0.00672,
    0.03825)
    (0.00750,
    0.03895)
    (0.00879,
    0.12439)
    (0.00037,
    0.00242)
    (−0.01151,
    0.00464)
    (−0.01013,
    0.00599)
    (−5.8007,
    4.57535)
    P = 0.004P = 0.005P = 0.003P = 0.007P = 0.007P = 0.408P = 0.627P = 0.628

Supplementary Materials

  • Supplementary Materials

    A social-belonging intervention improves STEM outcomes for students who speak English as a second language

    Jennifer LaCosse, Elizabeth A. Canning, Nicholas A. Bowman, Mary C. Murphy, Christine Logel

    Download Supplement

    This PDF file includes:

    • Exact wording of survey questions and response options
    • Intervention materials
    • Tables S1 to S10
    • Fig. S1
    • R code for all analyses

    Files in this Data Supplement:

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