Research ArticleECOLOGY

Evolution and effects of the social-ecological system over a millennium in China’s Loess Plateau

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Science Advances  07 Oct 2020:
Vol. 6, no. 41, eabc0276
DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.abc0276
  • Fig. 1 Study area.

    (A) Location of the LP and selected provinces. (B and C) Landscape on the LP before and after the GTGP, respectively. Photo credit: Y. Liang and Z. Wu, Office of the GTGP of Yan’an City.

  • Fig. 2 A framework for understanding the evolution of the SES in the LP.

    Double-sided arrows represent the interactions between system components. The transition of any relationship from positive to negative, or vice versa, represents a SES move from one evolutionary phase to another.

  • Fig. 3 Changes of interactions between system components and the evolutionary phases of the SES in the LP.

    (A) Relationship between population and cropland area. (B) Relationship between population and forest coverage. (C) Relationship between cropland area and forest coverage. (D) Evolutionary phases of the SES in the LP.

  • Fig. 4 Changes of the system component indicators over the past 1000 years.

    (A) Population. (B) Cropland area. (C) Forest coverage.

  • Fig. 5 Drivers of changes in social-ecological interactions in the LP.

    (A) Temperature anomaly. (B) Proxy precipitation index and precipitation. (C) Extreme drought or flood years in north China. (D) Grain production per hectare. (E) War frequency in north China.

  • Fig. 6 Effects of social-ecological interactions in different evolutionary phases of the SES in the LP.

    (A) Grain production in the LP. (B) Sediment load of the YR. (C) Natural runoff in the YR. (D) Change in area of the YR delta. (E) Number of natural breaches in the lower YR.

Supplementary Materials

  • Supplementary Materials

    Evolution and effects of the social-ecological system over a millennium in China’s Loess Plateau

    Xutong Wu, Yongping Wei, Bojie Fu, Shuai Wang, Yan Zhao, Emilio F. Moran

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    • Sections S1 to S4
    • Tables S1 and S2
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